Design Of Foundation Systems Principles And Practices Pdf

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Thus they have to be designed logically to suit the loads coming from the superstructure and the strength, stiffness and other geological conditions of the supporting soil. With an enormous increase in construction activities all over the world, structures and their foundations have become very sophisticated while the supporting soil has to accommodate these variations and complexities. This book focuses on the analysis and design of foundations using rational as well as conventional approaches.

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design-of-foundation-systems-principles-and-practices-third-edition-by-nainan-p-kurian

Classify the uncertainty associated with following items as either aleatory or epistemic and explain your reason for your classification: average wind speed over a 30 day period, location of a certain applied load, change in strength of a soil caused by sampling method, capacity determined by a certain analysis method, magnitude of live load caused by vehicles travelling on a bridge, soil shear strength as measured by a certain method.

This is a random process that we cannot affect. There is a certain accuracy with which a structure can be built and the designer had little or no control over this accuracy.

In theory there is some epistemic uncertainty in that could be reduced with better construction techniques, but from a practical standpoint this uncertainty is aleatory. Improved sampling techniques can reduce this uncertainty. With improved analytical tools we can reduce this uncertainty.

This is a random process which we cannot affect. The uncertainty caused by the quality of the equipment used and the care of the technician making the measurement is epistemic and can be reduced by the use of more precise equipment and better training of the technician.

However, there is aleatory uncertainty in the soil strength inherent in the natural processes that created the soil. Figure 2. Does the mean and standard deviation of this PDF represent aleatory or epistemic uncertainty? Solution The mean and standard deviation of this PDF contain both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. The mean of The epistemic uncertainty is associated with the number of samples used to estimate the parameters. If we had taken more samples, we would have better estimates.

However, this particular sample obviously contains a large number of measurements. Therefore the estimated standard deviation is probably very close to the aleatory uncertainty and testing more specimens is unlike to reduce the uncertainty significantly. List three sources of epistemic uncertainty associated with determining the soil strength at a given site and describe how you might reduce these uncertainties. Solution Source Small sample size Sloppy laboratory techniques Old or poor quality testing equipment Disturbance of soil samples before or during testing Mixing up results from different samples.

How do reduce Take and test more samples Improve laboratory methods Acquire improved testing equipment Use better sampling and testing methods Improve documentation methods eliminate mixing up samples.

Using a random number generator create a sample of 4 relative densities using the PDF presented in Figure 2. Repeat the exercise to create 3 different sample sets. Compute the mean and standard deviation of your sample.

Compute the mean and standard deviation of each sample set. Compare the means and standard deviations of your samples with each other and with the mean and standard deviation of the original distribution. Discuss the differences among the sample sets and the original distribution, including the type of uncertainties you are dealing with.

How many samples do you think are needed to reliably determine the mean and standard deviation of the relative density of this particular soil?

Solution There are an infinite number of solutions to this problem. The table below shows Excel spreadsheet formula that can be used to generate the random sample sets. The table below shows three sample sets generated with the Excel spreadsheet shown above.

Note that the average of the samples ranges from 6. Also one estimate of the standard deviation is nearly twice that of the original distribution. It is possible, using sampling theory, to determine the number of sample required to have a certain confidence level in the estimated parameters.

However, this is well beyond the scope of this text. Students should note that increasing the sample size to 3 to 7, significantly reduces the variability of the estimated mean and standard deviation.

Sample 1 2 3 4 Sample mean Sample Standard Deviation. A certain column will carry a dead load estimated to be k with a COV of 0. What is the mean and standard deviation of the total column load? What is the probability that this load will exceed k? Solution First we must compute the standard deviation of each random variable from their mean and COV using Equation 2.

What is the mean and standard deviation of the maximum moment in the beam? What is the probability the maximum moment will exceed 7 kN-m? Using Equations 2. Using the data shown in Figure 2. Solution The data in Figure 2. Using Equation 2. The capacity for a certain foundation system is estimated to be kN with a COV of 0.

The demand on the foundation is estimated to be kN with a COV of 0. Compute the mean factor of safety of this foundation and its probability of failure.

Solution The mean factor of safety is. We wish to design a shallow foundation with a probability of failure of The footing supports a column carrying a dead load with a mean of 30 k and COV of 0. Based on the uncertainty of soil properties and our analysis method, we estimate the COV of the foundation capacity to be 0.

For what mean capacity does the foundation need to be designed? From Equations 2. If the transmission line fails it will potentially kill 50 people. If the computed probability of failure is for a design life of years, is risk associated with the failure of design acceptable based on the Danish guidance in Figure 2. Solution The probability of failure in Problem 2. The point with 50 deaths and an probability of is plotted on Figure 2. This point lies between the negligible line and limit of tolerability for the Danish code.

To compute this we must compute the mean and standard deviation of the safety margin, m, as a function of the mean and standard deviation of the demand, D. First, since LRFD uses multiple partial factors of safety, it is more flexible and produces designs with more consistent probabilities of failure for different load combinations, and different material property variability.

Second, the partial safety factors in LRFD are selected based on an optimization process that uses probability theory explicitly include the variability of the loads, material properties, and analysis methods. See More. Solution Source Small sample size Sloppy laboratory techniques Old or poor quality testing equipment Disturbance of soil samples before or during testing Mixing up results from different samples How do reduce Take and test more samples Improve laboratory methods Acquire improved testing equipment Use better sampling and testing methods Improve documentation methods eliminate mixing up samples to Chap.

S D2:D5 The table below shows three sample sets generated with the Excel spreadsheet shown above. Published on Oct 10, Go explore.

Design Of Foundation Systems Principles And Practices Pdf

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Kameswara Rao covers the key aspects of the subject, including principles of testing, interpretation, analysis, soil-structure interaction modeling, construction guidelines, and applications to rational design. Rao presents a wide array of numerical methods used in analyses so that readers can employ and adapt them on their own. Throughout the book the emphasis is on practical application, training readers in actual design procedures using the latest codes and standards in use throughout the world. Presents updated design procedures in light of revised codes and standards, covering:. Provides background materials for easy understanding of the topics, such as:. Features subjects not covered in other foundation design texts:.

Foundation Design: Theory and Practice, N. S. V. Kamesware Rao

Classify the uncertainty associated with following items as either aleatory or epistemic and explain your reason for your classification: average wind speed over a 30 day period, location of a certain applied load, change in strength of a soil caused by sampling method, capacity determined by a certain analysis method, magnitude of live load caused by vehicles travelling on a bridge, soil shear strength as measured by a certain method. This is a random process that we cannot affect. There is a certain accuracy with which a structure can be built and the designer had little or no control over this accuracy. In theory there is some epistemic uncertainty in that could be reduced with better construction techniques, but from a practical standpoint this uncertainty is aleatory. Improved sampling techniques can reduce this uncertainty.

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Foundation Design Theory and Practice by N. S. V. Kameswara Rao

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