Importance Of And Application System Of Biocher On Grass Spss In Ethiopia Pdf
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Continuous monoculture of cool-season turfgrass causes soil degradation, and visual turf quality decline is a major concern in black soil regions of Northeast China. Turf mixtures can enhance turfgrass resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and increase soil microbial diversity. Understanding mechanism by plant-soil interactions and changes of black soil microbial communities in turf mixture is beneficial to restoring the degradation of urbanized black soils and maintaining sustainable development of urban landscape ecology.
In this study, based on the previous research of different sowing models, two schemes of turf monoculture and mixture were conducted in field plots during — in a black soil of Heilongjiang province of Northeast China. Turf performance, soil physiochemical properties, and microbial composition from rhizosphere were investigated. Results showed that turfgrass quality, turfgrass biomass, soil organic matter SOM , urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and catalase activities increased in PF mixture, but disease percentage and soil pH decreased.
The microbial diversity was also significantly enhanced under turf mixture model. The microbial community compositions were significantly different between the two schemes. Turf mixtures obviously increased the abundances of Beauveria , Lysobacter , Chryseolinea , and Gemmatimonas spp.
Redundancy analysis showed that the compositions of bacteria and fungi were related to edaphic parameters, such as SOM, pH, and enzyme activities. Since the increasing of turf quality, biomass, and disease resistance were highly correlated with the changes of soil physiochemical parameters and microbial communities in turf mixture, which suggested that turf mixture with two species i. Therefore, turfgrass is widely used in the world.
For instance, Turf dominates in urban and suburban green spaces in Canada and the United States Smith and Fellowes, ; turfgrass occupies about 50 million acres in the form of residential turf in the United States, such as athletic fields, golf courses, highway roadsides, cemeteries, and parks Ghimire et al. Turf not only makes up a substantial fraction of landscape in urbanized areas of many parts of the world Blancomontero et al.
However, current turfgrass sowing is often dominated by monoculture, which has some disadvantages in wear tolerance, coverage, resistance, and requiring more high-energy inputs with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and water consumption Helfand et al. The monoculture for turf often reduces turf visual quality and causes potential soil degradation and environmental problems.
While, mixed sowing models in which at least two plant species are mixed-sown in the same field at the same time are reported to enhance plant diversity at the field scale, maintain multiple ecosystem functions, such as the efficient use of water, soil, light, heat, and natural resources Dunn et al.
Mixture cultivation has been testified to be positively associated with yield in agriculture Trenbath, ; Agegnehu et al. Additionally, recent studies have showed effects of the mixture on plant growth by plant-soil interaction Zhao et al. Granzow reported that wheat-faba bean mixtures can influence plant growth by altering the soil fertility and increasing interactions among microbial communities, enzyme activities, and soil substrates. Likewise, Zhao found that grass-legume mixtures improved richness and diversity of microorganisms and also increased the content of soil nitrogen as well as plant biomass.
Hence, the mixture is beneficial to ecological and economical services by improving plant growth quality, increasing soil nutrition, and changing microbial communities. However, little is specified about plant-soil interaction in the mixed turfgrass model. Some studies reported that these biological processes of plant-soil interaction in mixed model were mainly driven by soil microbial activities Granzow et al.
Microorganisms play a vital role in the decomposition and synthesis of soil organic matter SOM , the release and fixation of nutrients, and various pollutants conversion in terrestrial ecosystems Wang et al.
For example, Silvestro verified that zero tillage soil fungal culture is supported by multiple cropping regimes. Wahbi reported that wheat-faba bean mixture was beneficial to improving the efficiency of nitrogen utilization by the symbiotic relationship between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Therefore, revealing changes of soil microorganisms in mixture model is helpful to formulate cultural practices to improve soil conditions and increase plant quality under the background of sustainable ecological development Duchene et al.
However, to date, the effect of soil microorganisms in the mixed model mainly focuses on crops; the alternation of the microbial community composition and diversity in mixed turf soil have not been fully investigated, especially impact of the mixture turf on microbial activities in black soil regions in China.
Black soil Mollisols is one of the most important resources for vegetation and has crucial functions in protecting environment and landscape Yao et al. Some of the black soils have severely degraded during the past several decades in China due to growing population, urban sprawl, long-term poor management, and soil erosion Hu et al.
Turfgrass as an artificial vegetation is recognized to be beneficial to restoring the degraded soil and maintaining sustainable development of urban ecology Monteiro, However, continuous monoculture of cool-season turfgrass causes soil degradation and visual turf quality decline in black soil regions of Northeast China.
Turf mixtures can enhance resistance of turfgrass to biotic and abiotic stresses Yin, and increase soil microbial diversity. Hence, revealing mechanism by the plant-soil interactions and changes of black soil microbial communities in turf mixtures is an urgent problem. Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis L. However, Kentucky bluegrass grows slowly and is easily invaded by weeds; thus, it is usually mixed with other turfgrass species for turf establishment in practice.
In particular, the mixed-sown model of Kentucky bluegrass-Red fescue is popular in turf Dunn et al. Red fescue Festuca rubra L. Nevertheless, it is necessary to deepen the understanding of microbial community differences between PF mixed sowing and PP monoculture in the black soil regions in China, in the context of dynamical interaction between aboveground and belowground organisms.
For this reason, we first investigated the turf growth characteristics in PF and PP models. In the black soil, physicochemical properties and enzyme activities were determined through individual experiment methods; diversities and compositions of soil microbial communities were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing; quantitative PCR was used to determine absolute abundances of bacteria and fungi.
We hypothesized that PF mixed sowing is beneficial to restoring the degradation of urbanized black soils and increasing visual turf quality by positive plant-soil interactions. The hypothesis was verified through exploring three questions: 1 whether turfgrass mixture improves physicochemical properties and enzyme activities in the black soil regions, 2 whether the mixture increases abundance and diversity of black soil microbial community, and 3 which microbial communities associate with improving visual quality and reducing disease of turfgrass.
The maximum and minimum temperatures are Before the experiments started, the field was wasteland for more than 10 years. The soil is a typical black soil Mollisol; Yao et al. The field experiment was carried out from April to October , which was set mixture and monoculture. There were four replicates for each model, and per plot area was 2.
The randomized block design was used in all plots. The turfgrasses in experimental plots were managed in normal maintenance of water and fertilizer during — Turf quality was visually assessed once a week on all plots according to Chen et al. The rating scales used were 1 very poor to 9 excellent , and the lowest acceptable value was 5 Xie et al.
The main pathogens in turfgrass plots were rust Puccinia spp. Therefore, we investigated the percent of these pathogens in PP monoculture and PF mixture turfgrasses from July to October Three quadrats cm 2 were randomly selected in each plot.
Infected tillers in each quadrat were recorded every week. Three quadrats cm 2 were randomly selected in each plot; tiller numbers in each quadrat were recorded in September Three quadrats 5 cm 2 in each plot were randomly selected for evaluating biomass underground from 0 to 20 cm surface depth in September For each plot, five soil cores at random points from 0 to 15 cm depth were collected by a 2. These five cores of each plot were then pooled together to form one combined sample, and four samples were obtained from per sowing model.
The eight soil samples from mixture and monoculture field were placed in an individual sterile plastic bag, which was packed inside an ice box and immediately brought to laboratory. Each soil sample was sieved and thoroughly homogenized by a 2-mm sieve. Soil pH was estimated in soil suspensions with deionized-distilled water SOM content was measured using the classical potassium dichromate oxidation method Nelson and Sommers, Soil moisture content was measured using gravimetry Yao et al.
AK was extracted with 1. Four kinds of soil enzymes including urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and catalase were measured following the methods described by Halstead , Johnson and Temple , Frankenberger and Johanson , and Floch , respectively. Total DNA was extracted from each rhizosphere of sampled soils 0. Genomic DNA concentration was measured using a Qubit 3. Melting curve analysis was used to testify the specificity of the products.
The initial copy number of the target gene was obtained using the cycle threshold Ct value of each sample to compare with the standard curves. All samples were quantified in triplicate. The mean values of turfgrass quality of PF and PP were 7. Figure 1. The disease percentage of PF was very low during the sensitive period of July—October. The highest and the lowest disease percentage of PF were 7. The root biomass was In addition, the aboveground density of PF increased by The aboveground density of turfgrass in PF and PP were 6.
Compared with the PP monoculture Table 1 , soil pH decreased by 6. Soil moisture varied slightly between the PF and the PP. Table 1. Effects of PF mixture and PP monoculture on soil physicochemical properties. Effects of the two sowing models on soil enzyme activities are summarized in Table 2.
Alkaline phosphatase activity in the PF and the PP was Invertase activity in the PF soil increased In general, the PF was beneficial to improve soil enzyme activities.
The abundance of fungi in the PF and the PP was 1. Total fungi and bacteria abundances in the PF soil were 2. Figure 2. Total abundance of fungil and bacteria in PF mixture and PP monoculture soils. Five fungal phyla were found, and Ascomycota Figure 3.
The effects of PF mixture and PP monoculture on relative abundances of fungal and bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil. Sixteen fungi taxa were detected at the class level. Figure 4. The effects of PF mixture and PP monoculture on relative abundances of main fungal and bacterial classes in rhizosphere soil.
Metrics details. Environmental stress is a crucial factor restricting plant growth as well as crop productivity, thus influencing the agricultural sustainability. Biochar addition is proposed as an effective management to improve crop performance. However, there were few studies focused on the effect of biochar addition on crop growth and productivity under interactive effect of abiotic stress e. This study was conducted with a pot experiment to investigate the interaction effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean yield, leaf gaseous exchange and water use efficiency WUE under biochar addition. Drought and salinity stress significantly depressed soybean phenology e.
The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success. To address the role of soil abiotic and microbial properties in plant invasions and associated mechanisms, we conducted two complementary experiments. In the first experiment, we grew invasive Solidago canadensis in regular soils from its different invasion stages and measured plant growth to address the joint contribution of soil abiotic and microbial properties. The growth of S.
Metrics details. Vermicompost of the toxic and allelopathic weed parthenium Parthenium hysterophorus was explored for its possible use as an organic fertilizer. Replicated plant growth trials were conducted using four levels of parthenium vermicompost 0, 2.
We studied the effects of Acacia seyal Del. A split-plot design with three replications was used. Acacia intercropping significantly reduced sorghum grain yields while biochar had no significant effect on sorghum yields. The land equivalent ratio LER for sorghum yield was 0.
A total of 27 composite soil samples were randomly collected from the CLUS for soil analysis. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and PCA. The lowest and highest bulk density was determined from NF 1. The highest CEC The highest soil OC stock
Именно так, черт возьми. Я был там, внизу.
Этот его секрет в действительности не был никакой тайной, он просто подписывал свои письма словом Искренне. Почему-то ему казалось, что этот филологический ребус Сьюзан не обрадует. - Хочу тебя обрадовать. Когда я летел домой, - сказал он, желая переменить тему, - я позвонил президенту университета.
Но Хейл сидел на месте и помалкивал, поглощенный своим занятием. Ей было безразлично, чем именно он занят, лишь бы не заинтересовался включенным ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ. Пока этого, по-видимому, не случилось: цифра 16 в окне отсчета часов заставила бы его завопить от изумления. Сьюзан допивала уже третью чашку чая, когда это наконец произошло: компьютер пискнул.