Colours And Their Effects Pdf
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- Colors and emotions: how colors make you feel
- Color and psychological functioning: a review of theoretical and empirical work
- Psychology and Color
Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people.
Colors and emotions: how colors make you feel
Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food.
Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people. For instance, heterosexual men tend to report that red outfits enhance female attractiveness, while heterosexual females deny any outfit color impacting that of men. Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Marketers see color as important, as color can influence a consumers' emotions and perceptions about goods and services. Logos for companies are important since the logos can attract more customers.
This happens when customers believe the company logo matches the personality of the goods and services, such as the color pink heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. Research shows that colors such as red tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cool colors such as blue being more favorable. Color has a large impact on food. Color affects how people perceive the edibility and flavor of foods and drinks.
For example, in food stores, bread is normally sold in packaging decorated or tinted with golden or brown tones to promote the idea of home baked and oven freshness. Additionally, a flavor can be intensified by a color. The color of placebo pills is reported to be a factor in their effectiveness, with "hot-colored" pills working better as stimulants and "cool-colored" pills working better as depressants. This relationship is believed to be a consequence of the patient's expectations and not a direct effect of the color itself.
Blue light causes people to feel relaxed, which has lead countries to add blue street lights in order to decrease suicide rates. How people respond to different color stimuli varies from person to person.
Color preference may also depend on ambient temperature. People who are cold often select warm colors such as red or yellow, while people who are hot favor cool colors like blue and green. Gender has also shown to influence how colors are received, with some research suggesting women and men respectively prefer "warm" and "cool" colors. Psychologist Andrew J. Elliot tested to see if the color of a person's clothing could make them appear more sexually appealing.
He found heterosexual men and women dressed in red were significantly more likely to attract romantic attention than women dressed in any other color. The color did not affect heterosexual women's assessment of other women's attractiveness. Other studies have shown men dressed in red appeal to heterosexual women. Contrary to the adult fondness for blue, in children yellow is the most favored color, perhaps owing to its associations with happiness. Cultural background has been shown to have a strong influence on color associations.
Studies have shown people from the same region, regardless of ethnicity, will have the same color preferences. Common associations connecting colors to a particular emotion may also differ cross-culturally. This highlights how the influence of different cultures can potentially change perceptions of color and its relationship to emotion.
Light and color influence how people see their surroundings. Different types of light sources affect interior or external objects by visually changing their surface colors. Specific hues observed under natural sunlight may vary when seen under the light from an incandescent tungsten light-bulb: lighter colors may appear to be more orange or "brownish" and darker colors may appear even darker.
If light or shadow, or the color of the object, masks an object's true contour outline of a figure it can appear to be shaped differently from reality. In particular, the trajectories of objects under a light source whose intensity varies with space are more difficult to determine than identical objects under a uniform light source. This could possibly be interpreted as interference between motion and color perception, both of which are more difficult under variable lighting.
Carl Jung is most prominently associated with the pioneering stages of color psychology. Jung was most interested in colors' properties and meanings, as well as in art's potential as a tool for psychotherapy. His studies in and writings on color symbolism cover a broad range of topics, from mandalas to the works of Picasso to the near-universal sovereignty of the color gold, the lattermost of which, according to Charles A.
Riley II, "expresses He looked to alchemy to further his understanding of the secret language of color, finding the key to his research in alchemical transmutation. His work has historically informed the modern field of color psychology. Since color is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition, color psychology has become important to marketing.
Recent work in marketing has shown that color can be used to communicate brand personality. Marketers must be aware of the application of color in different media e. Even though there are attempts to classify consumer response to different colors, everyone perceives color differently. The physiological and emotional effect of color in each person is influenced by several factors such as past experiences, culture, religion, natural environment, gender, race, and nationality.
When making color decisions, it is important to determine the target audience in order to convey the right message. Color decisions can influence both direct messages and secondary brand values and attributes in any communication. Color should be carefully selected to align with the key message and emotions being conveyed in a piece. Research on the effects of color on product preference and marketing shows that product color could affect consumer preference and hence purchasing culture.
This is mostly due to associative learning. Most results show that it is not a specific color that attracts all audiences, but that certain colors are deemed appropriate for certain products. Color is a very influential source of information when people are making a purchasing decision. Without prior experience to a logo, we begin to associate a brand with certain characteristics based on the primary logo color. Color mapping provides a means of identifying potential logo colors for new brands and ensuring brand differentiation within a visually cluttered marketplace.
A study on logo color asked participants to rate how appropriate the logo color was for fictional companies based on the products each company produced.
Participants were presented with fictional products in eight different colors and had to rate the appropriateness of the color for each product. This study showed a pattern of logo color appropriateness based on product function.
If the product was considered functional, fulfills a need or solves a problem, then a functional color was seen as most appropriate. If the product was seen as sensory-social, conveys attitudes, status, or social approval, then sensory-social colors were seen as more appropriate. Company logos can portray meaning just through the use of color. Relationships were found between color and sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness. A follow up study tested the effects of perceived brand personality and purchasing intentions.
Purchasing intent was greater if the perceived personality matched the marketed product or service. In turn color affects perceived brand personality and brand personality affects purchasing intent. Although color can be useful in marketing, its value and extent of use depends on how it is used and the audience it is used on. Different colors are perceived to mean different things. For example, tones of red lead to feelings of arousal while blue tones are often associated with feelings of relaxation.
Both of these emotions are pleasant, so therefore, the colors themselves can procure positive feelings in advertisements. The chart below gives perceived meanings of different colors in the United States. Functional F : fulfills a need or solves a problem . Sensory-Social S : conveys attitudes, status, or social approval . In map design, additional color meanings are commonly employed to create intuitive map symbols , due to the natural colors of common geographic features.
Common but by no means authoritative or exhaustive examples include:. Other colors can have intuitive meaning due to their role in Gestalt psychology and other cognitive aspects of the map-reading process. For example, shades that contrast most with the background i. Although some companies use a single color to represent their brand, many other companies use a combination of colors in their logo, and can be perceived in different ways than those colors independently.
When asked to rate color pair preference of preselected pairs, people generally prefer color pairs with similar hues when the two colors are both in the foreground; however, greater contrast between the figure and the background is preferred.
In contrast to a strong preference for similar color combinations, some people like to accent with a highly contrasting color. However, a smaller segment preferred to have the Nike swoosh accentuated in a different, and contrasting, color. Most of the people also used a relatively small number of colors when designing their ideal athletic shoe. This finding has relevance for companies that produce multicolored merchandise, suggesting that to appeal to consumer preferences, companies should consider minimizing the number of colors visible and using similar hues in any one product.
Although different colors can be perceived in different ways, the names of those colors matters as well. Many products and companies focus on producing a wide range of product colors to attract the largest population of consumers. For example, cosmetics brands produce a rainbow of colors for eye shadow and nail polish, to appeal to every type of person.
Even companies such as Apple Inc. Moreover, color name, not only the actual color, can attract or repel buyers as well. When asked to rate color swatches and products with either generic color names such as brown or "fancy" color names such as mocha , participants rated items with fancy names as significantly more likable than items with generic names. Furthermore, it would appear that in addition to fancy names being preferred for their aural appeal, they may actually contribute to the product they represent itself being liked more, and hence in this manner impact sales.
This could be due to greater interest in atypical names, as well as curiosity and willingness to "figure out" why that name was chosen. Purchasing intent patterns regarding custom sweatshirts from an online vendor also revealed a preference for atypical names. Participants were asked to imagine buying sweatshirts and were provided with a variety of color name options, some typical, some atypical.
Color names that were atypical were selected more often than typical color names, again confirming a preference for atypical color names and for item descriptions using those names. Color is used as a means to attract consumer attention to a product that then influences buying behavior. Variety seekers look for non-typical colors when selecting new brands.
Attractive color packaging receives more consumer attention than unattractive color packaging, which can then influence buying behavior. A study that looked at visual color cues focused on predicted purchasing behavior for known and unknown brands. The results showed that people picked packages based on colors that attracted their voluntary and involuntary attention.
Color and psychological functioning: a review of theoretical and empirical work
The color produced by light is a kind of an energy. This energy affects both the functions of our body as well as our mind and emotions. Although the eye is the organ of sight, studies conducted suggest that in reality the brain perceives the image. The image is observed and transmitted to the related part of the brain by millions of nerve endings in the retina of the eye, leading to the perception of the image. Thanks to studies conducted with the use of advanced technology, we now know that color affects brain waves, the autonomic nervous system and hormonal activity and stimulates various emotions.
In the past decade there has been increased interest in research on color and psychological functioning. Important advances have been made in theoretical work and empirical work, but there are also important weaknesses in both areas that must be addressed for the literature to continue to develop apace. In this article, I provide brief theoretical and empirical reviews of research in this area, in each instance beginning with a historical background and recent advancements, and proceeding to an evaluation focused on weaknesses that provide guidelines for future research. I conclude by reiterating that the literature on color and psychological functioning is at a nascent stage of development, and by recommending patience and prudence regarding conclusions about theory, findings, and real-world application. The past decade has seen enhanced interest in research in the area of color and psychological functioning. Progress has been made on both theoretical and empirical fronts, but there are also weaknesses on both of these fronts that must be attended to for this research area to continue to make progress.
Psychology and Color
Shuai Chang, David E. Lewis, Joel Pearson; The functional effects of color perception and color imagery. Journal of Vision ;13 10 Previous research into color imagery has focused on compound images consisting of both color and form, e.
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