Ethiopian Development Policy And Strategy Pdf
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From a war-torn and famine-plagued country at the beginning of the s, Ethiopia is today emerging as one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa. Growth in Ethiopia has surpassed that of every other sub-Saharan country over the past decade and the government has set its sights on transforming the country into a middle-income country by , and into a leading manufacturing hub in Africa. The major focus of this book, however, is the recent economic history, policies, and performance of the Ethiopian economy during a moment of ongoing and significant structural change.
- Rural Development Policy Making Tools and Frameworks in Ethiopia
- Rural Development Policy Making Tools and Frameworks in Ethiopia
- A critical review of rural development policy of Ethiopia: access, utilization and coverage
Ethiopia: National policy and strategy on disaster risk management. The National Employment Policy and Strategy N EPS of Ethiopia is prepared in response to the need for such a framework to guide interventions aimed at improving employment and its poverty outcomes in the country. Further, the policy outcomes and gaps are discussed and explained.
Rural Development Policy Making Tools and Frameworks in Ethiopia
Conceptual Issues 2. What is policy? What is rural development policy? Policy making process 2. What is rural development? Rural development policy making instruments 5. General economic and social policy instruments 5. Fiscal and monetary instruments 5. Trade and exchange rate instruments 5. Labor and employment policy instruments 5.
Investment and foreign aid 5. Population policy instruments 5. Incomes and equity policy instruments 5. Policy instruments related to agricultural and rural development 5. Rural infrastructure physical 5. Human capital capacity building 5. Agricultural research and technology development 5.
Instruments related to agricultural Prices 5. Stabilization and risk in agriculture 5. Sustainable rural livelihoods 5. Food and nutrition 5. Policy tools related to markets and property rights 5. Resource property rights 5. Institutional development 5. Policy instruments related to democratic and participatory processes 5. Decentralization 5. Policy instrument related to natural resource use and environmental protection 5. Direct government action 5. Control instruments 5. Economic incentives.
Rural development policy tools and frameworks in Ethiopia 6. Rural development policy tools and frameworks during Imperial regime 6. Rural development policy frameworks during Derg regime 6. Rural development policies and practices have passed through various phases. Between s and s, rural development was restricted to development in a single sector i. However, from the end s and then, rural development was redefined in such a way that include broader issues of rural areas and people such as inequality, participation and asset structure Berdegue, et al.
Globally about three quarter of population is living in rural areas and accompanied by higher level of poverty Boto, et al. Governments of developing countries, particularly in Africa, consider poverty as their top priority policy issue and gear their effort to reduce rural poverty and enhance the living standard of the agrarian society through increasing agricultural productivity and creating favorable condition for the non-farm employment opportunities.
Nevertheless, the decisive goal is to brining fundamental change in the rural economy by devising sound policies and implementing broad based rural development initiatives that can change the existing subsistence agriculture in to commercial based on agriculture; which in turn open the room for better agriculture- industry linkage; thereby reducing the share of agriculture in the overall economy.
The government of Ethiopia has recognized that without proactive rural development policies, it is impossible to create a favorable environment for accelerated development and achievement of improvements in the standards of living of the people.
Government declared that its main development agenda is poverty reduction and geared all of its development policies and strategies towards this end. Moreover, the government has set a long term vision of becoming a middle income country by the end of In general, the basic development objectives of the FDRE are: to build a free-market economic system in the country, which will enable the economy to develop rapidly, to extricate itself from dependence on food aid, and to make the poor people to be the main beneficiaries from the fruits of economic growth MoFED, Effective formulation and implementation rural development policies and strategies in an integrated and inclusive manner at various levels of government administration, is therefore, crucial for eradicating poverty and ensuring sustainable development.
It starts by addressing conceptual issues related to policy, policy making process, policy cycle, and rural development. It also presents rural development approaches, evolution of rural development policies, rural development policy instruments and frameworks, and their application in Ethiopian context. The main purpose of this essay is to examine the major rural development policy making tools and frameworks in the context of Ethiopia.
Key objectives of the paper include the following to: review conceptual issues related to rural policy making and development; evaluate evolution of rural development ideas, practices, and policies; discern rural development policy making tools and frameworks; and review the application of these tools and frameworks in Ethiopian context.
The paper will serve as a material that could provide a precise information that would help readers to have good understanding about conceptual issues related to policy, policy making, rural development, policy making approaches, and policy making tools and frameworks in the area of rural development.
It will help to clear the perplexity of equating agricultural development with rural development. Particularly, via this material the following outcomes will be achieve: improved knowledge and understanding of rural development issues; enhanced understanding of rural development approaches; better knowledge about rural development policy making tools and frameworks in the context of developing countries; and improved capacity of using various rural development policy alternatives.
There is no single definition for the term policy and so it means different things to different people. That is why numerous people assert to have diminutive or no comprehension of policy. That is why some people claim that policy hardly has relevance to their work or their lives. Policy can be defined as those plans, programs, positions and guidelines of government which influence decisions Farag, Public policy is a "purposive and consistent course of action produces as a response to a perceived problem of constituency, formulated by a specific political process; adopted, implemented and enforced by a public agency" Barber, The different definitions of public policy indicated above and mentioned everywhere in the literature reflect its multi-faceted nature, yet all draw elements of public decisions, choices, positions and statements of intents.
Rural development policy refers to all aspects of government action that, directly or indirectly, influences the nature of economic and social development in rural areas.
It is a policy that directly affects changes in line with unambiguously defined rural development goals National University of Ireland, Rural development should be viewed from an integrated spatial perspective which takes account of all policies which have an impact on the rural area. Policy making is necessary and prerequisite prior to every action in every nation and form of organization, be it private or public.
It is a process that includes the following phases: agenda setting, policy formulation, policy legitimation, implementation, evaluation, and policy maintenance, succession or termination Cairney, a; lbietan, Agenda setting : is the process of listing issues problems that warrant serious consideration for the making or remaking of a policy.
This phase usually starts from problem identification that demands government consideration, deciding on which issues problems require the most attention, and understanding and analyzing the nature of the problem. The placement of the problem on the agenda can be influenced by: the extremity of the effects of a problem; a concentration of unfortunate results in a given environment area ; the range of persons affected by a problem; the intensity of effects; and the visibility of a problem.
Policy formulation : this phase includes: setting policy objectives, generating and identifying policy alternatives, identifying and evaluating the cost and benefit of each alternative and estimating the effect of each solution, choosing from a list of policy alternatives and selecting policy instruments.
Legitimation: this phase focuses on ensuring that the chosen policy instruments have support. Policy letigimation can entail one or a mixture of: legislative approval, executive approval, looking for approval via public consultation. Implementation : this is action stage of policy making where institutions or organization responsible for implementation are established or reorganized, making sure that adequate resources are ear marked, and making sure that policy decisions are executed as planned.
In general, it focuses on assessing the extent to which the policy was successful or the policy decision was the correct one. Policy maintenance, succession or termination : this is the final stage where concerned bodies consider whether the policy is to be continued, modified or discontinued Cairney, a: Rural development is a branch of development which has its own distinguishing unique features. We may draw the image of the former in our mind like plenty of open space areas, either in a natural state or ploughed or occupied by livestock, with poor infrastructure, filled by illiterate people, etc and that of the latter as areas encompassing buildings commercial and residential , roads, rail ways, highly educated inhabitants, factories, etc.
When we conceptualize rural areas like this, what about rural towns? This kind of understanding may make conceptualization of rural development difficult and complicate the identification of cut-off point between the two. Agricultural Development merely focuses on a single sector agriculture and chiefly aims at rising agricultural products such as crops, livestock, fish and etc where labor, land and capital are purely considered as factors of production.
Conversely, Rural Development is a broad, multi dimensional and multi-sectoral concept which primarily targets people and institutions in rural areas. In this case, agricultural development is a sub set of rural development. Regional development is has a wide meaning to describe a certain area in a country or continent.
It may encompass rural and urban development Ibid. Various definitions of rural development exist in the literature. However, for the sake of this short essay, I shall focus on the following two definitions that I think will possibly capture the key issues in rural development policy making. Although these few definitions do not explicitly address environmental issues without which rural development is impossible.
To thoroughly understand rural development policy making processes, tools and frameworks, it is imperative to briefly examine how rural development ideas and practices are evolved over the past half century.
It is clear from the development literature that the periods between s and 60s were characterized by modernization, s was dominated by state intervention, s by market liberalization, s was characterized by participation and empowerment, and s was characterized by sustainable livelihoods and good governance see Figure 2 below. Although ideas and practices of rural development policies did not, in reality, go through these transitions in such an orderly way.
Moreover, awareness and practices of rural development are differing across diverse disciplines, centers of learning, influential think-tanks, international agencies and national governments Ellis and Biggs, Some ideas and thinking transcend across decades and influence rural development policies and practices.
This idea was embodied in theories of dual-economy which argue that the agricultural sector has trivial prospects for increasing productivity or growth, and so could play merely a passive role in the process of economic development by providing raw materials and labor to the modern sector of the economy until the latter ultimately stretched to take up the place of the former. Besides manufacturing industry, the modern sector is envisaged to contain large — scale mechanized agriculture such as plantations, estates, commercial farms and ranches in addition to manufacturing industry.
However, during s there was paradigm shift in rural development thinking where the emphasis on large scale agriculture was switched to small-farm agriculture and the latter was considered as an engine of economic growth Ellis and Biggs, ; Harriss, Even if such shift was occurred during s, the idea that large-scale modern agriculture was more efficient than the traditional peasant sector had transcended into the s and whispered to exist till today.
As Rondinelli and Mosse et al. In general, economic and agricultural development theories have significantly influenced rural development policies as well as practices of donors throughout the past half-century. Figure 3 below summarizes the evolution of the dominant themes in rural development that have been bases for policy making in the past six decades.
Figure 3 above shows a series of overlapping transitions that have occurred in poor countries over the past six decades. For example, there was transition from community development during s to the emphasis on small-farm growth s; ongoing small-farm growth within integrated rural development during s; transition from state-led rural development during s to market liberalization in s; process, participation, empowerment and actor approaches dominated s and s; the emergence of sustainable livelihoods as an integrating framework during s; and incorporation of rural development in poverty reduction strategy papers during s.
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Rural Development Policy Making Tools and Frameworks in Ethiopia
Conceptual Issues 2. What is policy? What is rural development policy? Policy making process 2. What is rural development? Rural development policy making instruments 5. General economic and social policy instruments 5.
A critical review of rural development policy of Ethiopia: access, utilization and coverage
Metrics details. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. By African, standard rural development programme has long history in Ethiopia.
The strategy envisages achieving middle-income status by in a climate-resilient green The strategy envisages achieving middle-income status by in a climate-resilient green economy. It is based on four main pillars: 1 adoption of agricultural and land use efficiency measures 2 increased GHG sequestration in forestry, through the protection and re-establishment of forests for their economic and ecosystem services including as carbon stocks; 3 deployment of renewable and clean power generation methods; 4 use of appropriate advanced technologies in industry, transport, and buildings. The strategy assessed several initiatives across seven priority sectors, selecting the ones which were able to enable the country to achieve in a sustainable way the development objectives contained in the Growth and Transformation Plan.
Metrics details. The analysis is based on social accounting matrix SAM of Oromia region. This study develops two simulations based on economic assumptions and tests their effects on agricultural production, and social welfare. The first set of experiment focuses on the irrigation policies that change the factor intensities in the production of agricultural commodities, and the second one focuses on the precision agriculture that raises agricultural productivity in the use of technologies.
The present Rural Development Policy and Strategies underscores one basic objective with regard to economic development, i. Given the dominance of agriculture in the Ethiopian economy, i. It is the development of the agricultural sector that will provide the basis for rural development.