Difference Between Perpetual And Periodic Inventory System Pdf

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difference between perpetual and periodic inventory system pdf

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Inventory systems track the flow of raw materials, work in process and finished goods inventory from receipt to sale and shipment.

To be precise, you lose money on inventory. The business owners and warehouse managers soon identified this, and therefore they wanted an inventory management method that helped them make instantaneous changes in their inventory levels. As a result, in the quest to find a more proactive way to manage stocks and register the additions and subtractions in stocks, one of the many methods of Inventory management, Perpetual inventory system — one of the most modern and effective ways of managing your inventory was made possible in the early s with the use of digital computers. In this approach, warehouse managers keep a continuous track of inventory balances, which means the stock is updated automatically every time an item is received or sold through every point of sale. It uses software to follow the rules, keep the system up-to-date, and it works great.

Perpetual vs Periodic Inventory System

In a business environment, where physical goods are being sold or purchased, it is essential to have an inventory management system. These inventory management systems divide into two major categories, called perpetual systems and periodic systems. The periodic and perpetual inventory systems are different methods to track the quantity of goods on hand. The periodic inventory system relies upon an occasional or timely physical count of the inventory to determine the level of inventory and the cost of goods sold COGS. Under periodic inventory, the inventory account and COGS account are updated in a timely manner — this could be once a month, once a quarter, or once a year. The perpetual inventory system keeps continual track of inventory balances and requires much more record keeping to maintain.

The good news for you is the inventory valuation methods under FIFO, LIFO, weighted average or average cost , and specific identification are calculated basically the same under the periodic and perpetual inventory systems! The bad news is the periodic method does do things just a little differently. Under the FIFO Method, we use the oldest inventory first and work our way forward until the sales are complete. Under the periodic inventory, cost of goods sold is assigned at the end of the period only and not with each sales transaction. The journal entries under the periodic inventory method using FIFO would be see how cost of good sold is recorded once at the end of the period, in this case end of the month :. Under the LIFO Method, cost of goods sold is calculated using the most recent inventory first and then working our way backwards until the sales order has been filled. The journal entries under FIFO would be the same but the entry to cost of goods sold and merchandise inventory done on January 31 and would be:.

Posted by Terms compared staff Jul 8, Accounting. A periodic inventory system is a system of inventory accounting in which real time updation of inventory balances are not made. In fact physical counting of inventory determines inventory position on completion of a specified period — usually once a quarter or once a year. In a periodic inventory system, purchases of inventory are recorded in the purchase account in the books of the enterprise. At the end of the specified period, when a physical count is done, the balance of purchases is moved to the inventory account. The cost of goods sold is subsequently determined by application of a mathematical formula:. The periodic inventory system is preferred by smaller enterprises with lower small volumes where physical inventory counting is more feasible.

Periodic inventory system vs perpetual inventory system

Perpetual inventory system and periodic inventory systems are the two systems of keeping records of inventory. In perpetual inventory system , merchandise inventory and cost of goods sold are updated continuously on each sale and purchase transaction. Purchases are directly debited to inventory account whereas for each sale two journal entries are made: one to record sale value of inventory and other to record cost of goods sold. Purchases account is not used in perpetual inventory system. In periodic inventory system , merchandise inventory and cost of goods sold are not updated continuously. Instead purchases are recorded in Purchases account and each sale transaction is recorded via a single journal entry.

Under periodic inventory system, entity maintains temporary accounts like purchases, purchases returns, sales and sales return. At the end of the period the amounts in these temporary accounts are added to determine the amount of inventory available for sale. Inventory still at hand is usually found by physically counting the units. The number of units at hand are deducted from inventory available for sale to compute cost of goods sold and hence the formula:. But it must be understood that purchases account and Inventory account are two different things. If entity chooses to regularly update purchases account it does not necessarily tell how much inventory entity holds at a particular time. Under periodic system it is the inventory account which is updated at intervals.

So every manufacturing concern keeps a track of its inventory purchased, returned and issued during the year, through the inventory record system. The inventory system is of two types: Perpetual Inventory System , in which the movement of the stock is recorded continuously and Periodic Inventory System , which updates the inventory records from time to time only after the physical count of the stock. Many people utter confusion in understanding the two methods, so here in this article, we provide you all the important differences between the Perpetual and Periodic Inventory system, in tabular form. The Periodic Inventory System is an inventory record method whereby, the inventory records are updated at periodic intervals. Under this system, the business operations need to be stopped during valuation.


The inventory system is of two types: Perpetual Inventory System, in which the movement of the stock is recorded continuously and Periodic.


7 Differences Between Perpetual and Periodic Inventory System

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