American Sign Language And Deaf Culture Competency Of Osteopathic Medical Students Pdf

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American Annals of the Deaf

David P. We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language.

We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. Tasks that reveal PA include the ability to rhyme words, to hear that different words start with the same or different sounds, or tell the number of phonemes sounds included in single words.

Tasks involving the blending, deleting, substituting, or moving of individual phonemes within or between words are common assessments of PA. Being able to identify separate words in a spoken sentence, or to hear the two components of a compound word, or to hear and separate syllables also requires PA. Anthony and Francis stated that PA and its relation to literacy exist in all alphabetic languages that have been examined see also Goswami, The question of how and whether deaf and hard of hearing DHH children develop a sound-based PA and whether this is causally related to the development of reading in this population has been an area of active research see, e.

Given the great heterogeneity in language experiences, educational instruction, etiologies of hearing loss, and variability in audiological profiles of DHH students, it is perhaps not surprising that there is a wide range of data and inferences drawn about the importance of spoken language PA in learning to read.

We present a newly developed test of ASL PA and examine whether deaf signers show differential abilities on this measure. Within the deaf population, there are many individuals who rely upon visual manual languages such as ASL for communication. Linguists have shown that signed languages are fully expressive human languages with grammatical processes that have developed largely independent of the influence of spoken languages. Psycholinguists have examined whether deaf users of signed languages are sensitive to the structural parameters of signs e.

Using primed lexical decision paradigms, researchers have examined whether there are processing advantages when viewing two temporally adjacent signs that share formational parameters i.

Results from these endeavors have been mixed. For example, Corina and Emmorey reported inhibitory effects for targets sharing an articulatory location with primes, no effects for shared handshapes and a facilitatory effect for shared movements.

Corina and Hildebrandt investigated movement and location priming at and millisecond ms inter-stimulus interval ISI lags. No phonological priming was observed at the ISI lag, while inhibitory marginally significant trends were observed both for Location and Movement at the ISI lag. Importantly, these effects were not observed when primes were pseudosigns, suggesting that phonological priming is a lexical phenomenon.

These studies reported that for neighborhoods defined by location, low-frequency signs were recognized faster in sparse neighborhoods.

A different pattern was observed for neighborhoods defined by handshape. Here, low-frequency signs were recognized more quickly in dense neighborhoods. Two recent event-related potential studies examined the time course of lexical activation for signs within a sentence context and reported effects for shared phonological properties.

Grosvald, Gutierrez, Hafer, and Corina examined ERP data collected for target words that were semantically appropriate baseline , semantically inappropriate, or a pseudosign that was formationally possible but a nonexisting ASL sign. Moreover, the formationally possible nonsigns produced a greater negativity than the semantically inappropriate sign.

Importantly, the response to the pseudosign condition was clearly distinct from a fourth condition in which the critical ending sign was replaced with a nonlinguistic gesture, which bore no systematic relationship to the phonotactic properties of ASL.

Thus, deaf participants showed a clear linguistic sensitivity to the sign properties of the stimuli. In a separate sentence processing paradigm, Gutierrez and colleagues recorded ERPs to critical signs that were consistent with the sentence context baseline e. Additionally, items could share the expected location of the baseline sign, but were semantically unrelated e.

Finally, a fifth condition tested words that were completely unrelated to the sentence context e. The most pertinent results for the present paper are that the ERP responses showed an early sensitivity to phonological and semantic mismatches. In the —ms window, all conditions showed an increased N with respect to the expected ending, suggesting greater difficulty in semantic integration with the established context.

Taken together, these studies demonstrate electrophysiological evidence for stages of language processing that involve sensitivity to formational properties of ASL signs; these effects may be observed quite early in language processing and are clearly distinct for nonlinguistic gesture processing Grosvald et al.

These online psycholinguistic tests suggest that deaf participants are differentially sensitive to ASL phonological structure, and these results provide evidence in favor of a parameter-based lexical organization e. Additional work is required to fully understand the time course of these activations and how the combinatorial aspects of shared phonological structure may produce inhibition in some cases e.

In addition, the role of language experience, which often interacts with these effects, has yet to be fully understood. In one of the first investigations of explicit PA for ASL, Hildebrandt and Corina reported that similarity judgments of signs sharing two sign parameters i. This combination of parameters is noteworthy as theories of ASL syllable structure have proposed that movement and location properties serve as the skeletal structure from which syllables are built and that movement is the most sonorous element of the sign syllable Sandler, Further consideration of the response patterns of deaf signers and hearing nonsigners suggest that under some circumstances, tacit knowledge of ASL syllable structure may override the purely perceptual factors in these similarity ratings.

This is seen in the different rankings of deaf and hearing participants similarity judgments across the data set. Specifically, hearing nonsigners similarity ratings appear to rely heavily on the presence or absence of shared movements across sign pairings. This ranking of similarity judgments suggests that shared movement is quite salient for nonsigners.

One way to explain this pattern of data is that native signers are tapping into linguistically motivated groupings in their similarity judgments. Hearing participants who are not attuned to this level of phonological representation are driven by the surface characteristics of the sign pairs and principally the saliency of the movement.

Thus for native signers the knowledge of ASL syllable structure may override purely perceptual factors i. Clues to the privileged groupings within a language can often be observed in stylized uses of language such as poetry, language games, and song. Signed languages are no exception. They observed that a similar handshape may be used throughout a poem, a device analogous to the spoken language phenomenon of alliteration where each word shares a similar initial sound.

Often, the locations and movements of signs are manipulated to create cohesiveness and continuity between signs. Valli also noted reoccurrence of similar nonmanual features throughout a poem. Signs, like spoken and written words, may overlap or be shortened or lengthened to create a rhythmic pattern.

These devices are combined to create strong visual imagery unique to visual-gestural languages Cohn, Signed cheerleader fight songs also evidence repetition of rhythmic movement patterns and handshape alliteration. Taken together, these examples demonstrate that sign forms exhibit component structures that are accessible to independent manipulation e.

The majority of deaf signers may experience delays in sign language acquisition, with first exposure limited to a preschool or elementary school setting. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for deaf adults, whose early language experience was based on oral education, to learn sign language as teenagers. The impact of the differential age of exposure to a sign language has been repeatedly observed in lexical processing studies of signed language Carreiras et al.

Across many studies, deaf signers who have acquired sign language after infancy but nevertheless report using a signed language like ASL as their preferred and dominant language perform more slowly on lexical tasks and often show characteristic patterns of performance which, in part, suggest greater attention to surface-level properties of sign forms.

One interpretation of these findings is that nonnative signers are less efficient in decoding the phonological forms of signs than are native signers, for whom this stage of processing takes place in a more automatic fashion.

A recent study by Morford et al. Accruing evidence suggest that deaf signers are sensitive to aspects of sign formation, especially in online measures of lexical processing. However, the degree to which a metalinguistic PA for signed language exists and whether the age of exposure to sign language differentially interacts with this ability is largely unknown. In an effort to further explore PA for ASL we constructed a novel sign segmentation task, which requires the explicit manipulation of structural properties of ASL signs.

Facility in this task, we believe, provides one measure of PA for a signed language. Our main question of interest was whether there were differential abilities in performing this explicit phonological decision task as a function of age of sign exposure.

Finally, we discuss the implications of our results as it relates to emerging theories of skilled reading in profoundly deaf individuals. Our PA task required participants to view video clips of two pseudosign forms. Based on these forms, they were asked to isolate handshape, movement, and location properties of the two pseudosigns and recombine them in a fashion that yielded an existing ASL sign.

To delimit the choices in the ASL version, for each trial, three real signs were provided as possible answers, only one of which fully satisfied the requirements for recombining properties of the pseudosigns. The foils, while both possible signs, included elements of the nonsigns but did not fully satisfy combinatorial criteria. One necessarily confronts several choices in the development of video-based tests for assessing ASL PA in this manner.

Extensive pilot testing not reported was used to determine the final version of the experiment. One major issue is how to present the initial nonsigns, the correct sign answer, and the two foils in a manner that does not overwhelm perceptual and memory capacities of the participants. Each time a participant pressed the spacebar, all five videos would play simultaneously.

Participants were encouraged to press the spacebar as many times as they needed to examine the two nonsign forms and evaluate the potential answers.

This procedure ensured that our task was not simply an assessment of perceptual or memory load of monitoring simultaneously played videos, but was a reflection of the conscious effort required to solve this metalinguistic puzzle. Our intuitions suggested that individuals, for whom sign-component segmentation and mental manipulation of sign forms were more facile, would require fewer presses of the spacebar before they responded. As such, in addition to tabulating accuracy scores, we evaluated the utility of using the numbers of spacebar presses as an additional dependent variable in our design.

While there are many other possible scenarios for assessing PA in a sign language, this task provided an important and informative starting point in our ongoing investigations. Eight-seven severely to profoundly deaf participants were individually tested and were divided into three groups based upon self-reported exposure to sign language, school history, and other pertinent demographic information.

Forty participants 21 female, 19 male mean age In these cases, participants reported exposure to sign language in an elementary school setting prior to age 8. Sixteen participants 10 female, 6 male mean age Participants were asked to self-report hearing loss, available data are reported in Table 1. A native female signer served as our sign model and executed all signs and nonsigns. The stimuli were edited with Final Cut Pro ver. All sign forms were closely edited as is customary in our laboratory, specifically stimuli were edited to remove noncritical transitional movements.

On video with 30 frames per second encoding, this appears as a moment in which the intended target handshape of the sign is clearly articulated and nonblurred. The ending frame of each sign stimulus was chosen as the point at which the target handshape began to fall out of its intended form. We applied this same approach to the editing of the pseudosign as well.

In the pseudosign pairs the three parameters were grouped into two different categories; handshape and movement in one pseudosign and the location parameter signaled in the other, or location and movement presented in one pseudosign while the hand-shape parameter was present in the other pseudosign. Ordering of these types of trials was balanced across the experiment via a fixed random order as was the side of presentation for the nonsign pairs.

Prior to the actual test, all participants viewed a Powerpoint presentation that explained the task and provided explicit examples of how the task was to be completed, highlighting how features of individual signs could be recombined to create a new sign.

In addition to written instructions, ASL instructions were provided to all participants as needed during this practice time-period. Practice trials differed from the actual test items. After watching the explanation, participants received a practice trial and the examiner clarified any question the participants had and in some cases repeated the pertinent examples.

All participants demonstrated that they were able to perform the manipulation prior to beginning the actual test. The test proper consisted of 20 distinct sign trials, however due to a technical error, data from the first trial were only intermittently captured; thus all results were predicted on the 19 trials that all participants received.

Course Descriptions

Students completed a pretest in which they provided basic demographic information, rated their confidence levels, took a video quiz on basic medical signs, and experienced a practical standardized encounter with a Deaf patient. They then attended a 4-hour workshop and, 2 weeks later, completed a posttest. Thirty-three students completed the pretest; 29 attended the workshop; 26 completed the posttest. Video quiz scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest, as did scores for the standardized patient encounter after completion of the workshop. Students also reported increased levels of confidence in interactions with the Deaf community. The results suggest that a single workshop was effective in increasing both confidence and short-term knowledge in interactions with Deaf patients.

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American Sign Language and Deaf culture competency of osteopathic medical students. American Annals of the Deaf, (1), 36– AMERICAN SIGN.


American Sign Language and Deaf Culture Competency of Osteopathic Medical Students

Benefits of sign language interpreting and text alternatives for deaf students' classroom learning. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 11 4 : , Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools 28 4 : , Varied sign language systems and their mediating effects on WISC-R Verbal subtests of profoundly deaf students: a replication.

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View · Download PDF Download; Save American Sign Language and Deaf Culture Competency of Osteopathic Medical Students. Jessica Lapinski Twenty Basic Medical Signs Used During the Video Quiz. Figure 1.


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