Technological Advancements And Its Impact On Humanity Pdf

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For most of the last 50 years, technology knew its place.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Sophisticated information technologies permit instantaneous communication among the far-flung operations of global enterprises.

Technology society and life or technology and culture refers to the inter-dependency, co-dependence , co-influence, and co-production of technology and society upon one another. Evidence for this synergy has been found since humanity first started using simple tools. The inter-relationship has continued as modern technologies such as the printing press and computers have helped shape society.

Technology and society

Language: English Spanish French. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that frequent digital technology use has a significant impact—both negative and positive—on brain function and behavior. Potential harmful effects of extensive screen time and technology use include heightened attention-deficit symptoms, impaired emotional and social intelligence, technology addiction, social isolation, impaired brain development, and disrupted sleep.

However, various apps, videogames, and other online tools may benefit brain health. Functional imaging scans show that internet-naive older adults who learn to search online show significant increases in brain neural activity during simulated internet searches. Certain computer programs and videogames may improve memory, multitasking skills, fluid intelligence, and other cognitive abilities. Some apps and digital tools offer mental health interventions providing self-management, monitoring, skills training, and other interventions that may improve mood and behavior.

Additional research on the positive and negative brain health effects of technology is needed to elucidate mechanisms and underlying causal relationships. During the past three decades, digital technology has transformed our daily lives. People at every age are now taking advantage of the vast amounts of available online information and communication platforms that connect them with others.

This technology helps us to generate, store, and process enormous amounts of information and interact with each other rapidly and efficiently. Most adults use the internet daily, and nearly one out of four report being online most of the time. The emerging data suggest that constant technology use impacts brain function and behavior in both positive and negative ways. For example, older individuals suffering from cognitive decline could use the internet to access information to help them remain independent longer; however, many seniors with cognitive complaints are reluctant or unable to adopt new technologies.

Multiple studies have drawn a link between computer use or extensive screen time eg, watching television, playing videogames and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. A meta-analysis indicated a correlation between media use and attention problems. The reason for the link between technology use and attention problems is uncertain, but might be attributed to repetitive attentional shifts and multitasking, which can impair executive functioning.

Because of concern that a young, developing brain may be particularly sensitive to chronic exposure to computers, smartphones, tablets, or televisions, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time for children aged 2 years or younger, when the brain is particularly malleable.

Kirsh and Mounts 12 explored the hypothesis that playing videogames would interfere with the ability to recognize emotions conveyed through facial expressions. They examined the effects of playing videogames on recognition of facial expressions of emotions in students ages 17 to 23 years. Participants played violent videogames before watching a series of calm faces morph into either angry or happy faces.

Participants were asked to quickly identify the emotion while the facial expression changed. The authors found that happy faces were identified faster than angry faces, and that playing violent videogames delayed happy-face recognition time.

Our team at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA 13 hypothesized that preteens restricted from screen-based media would have more opportunities for face-to-face interactions, which would improve their ability to recognize nonverbal emotional and social cues.

At baseline and after 5 days, participants were assessed for their ability to recognize emotions from photographs of facial expressions and videotaped scenes of social interactions without verbal cues. After 5 days, the nature camp participants restricted from screen time demonstrated significantly better recognition of nonverbal emotional and social cues than participants who continued their usual daily screen time. These findings suggest that time away from screen-based media and digital communication tools improves both emotional and social intelligence.

Although not formally included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 14 excessive and pathological internet use has been recognized as an internet addiction, which shares features with substance-use disorders or pathological gambling. Common features include preoccupations, mood changes, development of tolerance, withdrawal, and functional impairment. Panagiotidi and Overton 19 reported greater ADHD symptoms in adults aged 18 to 70 years with internet addiction: predictors of addiction included younger age, playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games, and spending more time online.

Despite consistent associations between ADHD symptoms and internet addiction, a causal relationship has not been confirmed.

It is possible that people with ADHD symptoms have a greater risk for developing technology addiction, but an alternative explanation is that extensive technology use from addictive behavior causes ADHD symptoms. Ninety percent of young adults in the United States use social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram, and most visit these sites at least daily. Primack and colleagues 20 studied young adults ages 19 to 32 years and found that using social media 2 or more hours each day dou- bled the odds for perceived social isolation compared with use less than 30 minutes each day.

Similar associations between perceived social isolation and social media use were observed in middle-aged and older adults. Screen time may also adversely impact cognitive and brain development.

In a recent review, children under age 2 were reported to spend over 1 hour each day in front of a screen; by age 3, that number exceeded 3 hours. Recent research has examined the effects of media exposure on brain development. In a study of children aged 8 to 12 years, more screen and less reading time were associated with decreased brain connectivity between regions controlling word recognition and both language and cognitive control.

Structurally, increased screen time relates to decreased integrity of white-matter pathways necessary for reading and language. Recent studies indicate that screen exposure disrupts sleep, which can have a negative effect on cognition and behavior. Daily touch-screen use among infants and toddlers was shown to negatively impact sleep onset, sleep duration, and nighttime awakenings.

It is unclear whether the act of looking at screens or media content disrupts sleep; however, it is well-known that the wavelength of light exposure affects the circadian rhythms that govern sleep.

Computer and phone light-emitting diode LED screens emit slow wave, blue light that interferes with circadian rhythms. Exposure to LED versus non-LED screens has been shown to produce changes in melatonin levels and sleep quality, and such exposure decreases cognitive performance. Despite these potential harmful brain-health effects of digital technology, emerging evidence points to several benefits for the aging brain in particular, including opportunities for brain-strengthening neural exercise, cognitive training, and the online delivery of mental-health interventions and support Table I.

Functional neuroimaging allows scientists to observe regional neural activity during various mental tasks. Our group was the first to explore neural activity using functional MRI while research volunteers performed simulated internet searching. We assessed patterns of brain neural activation in 24 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults ages 55 to 76 years : 12 of them had minimal internet search experience net-naive group , and 12 had extensive experience net-savvy group.

In addition to the internet-search task, we used a control task of reading text on a computer screen formatted to simulate a printed book layout. We found that text reading activated brain regions controlling language, reading, memory, and visual abilities left inferior frontal, temporal, posterior cingulate, parietal, and occipital regions , and the magnitude and extent of activation were similar in the net-naive and net-savvy groups. During internet searching, net-naive subjects displayed activation patterns similar to those observed while reading text.

However, net-savvy subjects demonstrated significant activity in neural signal intensity in additional regions controlling decision-making, complex reasoning, and vision frontal pole, anterior temporal region, anterior and posterior cingulate, and hippocampus. During the internet-search task, the net-savvy group displayed a more than twofold increase in the extent of activation in the major regional clusters compared with the net-naive group 21 versus total activated voxels.

These findings suggest that searching online may be a form of brain neural exercise. Other research indicates that after several months, daily computer-game playing leads to reduced cortical neural activity. One model that could explain such findings is that novel and stimulating mental experiences, such as searching on the internet, initially lead to minimal activation before the internet user discovers strategies for solving the unfamiliar mental challenge.

After such insights, a broader neural network is engaged. After repeated sessions, the initially novel mental task becomes routine and repetitive, no longer posing a mental challenge. The lower activity observed may thus reflect a more efficient neural response. The net-savvy volunteers showed increased activation during the internet-search task, which suggests that internet searching may remain a novel and mentally stimulating process even after continued practice.

We also used functional MRI to record brain neural activity during simulated internet-search tasks in 12 net-naive and 12 net-savvy subjects before and after internet training. The training consisted of brief instructions on how to search online along with practice sessions 1 hour per day for a week. To increase motivation, participants were told that they would be quizzed on their knowledge of assigned search topics after the experiment.

During their first session, net-naive subjects recruited a neural network that included the superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri, as well as the lateral occipital cortex and occipital pole. During the second session after internet training , additional regions in the middle and inferior frontal gyri were recruited only in the net-naive group.

By contrast, during their first scan session, the net-savvy subjects recruited a cortical network that, though overlapping with that of the net-naive subjects, showed more extensive regions of activation Figures 1 and 2. This cortical network included regions that control mental activities supporting tasks required for internet searches, including decision-making, working memory, and the ability to suppress nonrelevant information.

Moreover, net-savvy participants showed a pattern of activation that was reduced after the training. This reduction is consistent with our hypothesis that the brain becomes more efficient and possibly habituates to the internet task over time. Overall, these findings suggest that internet searching for relatively short periods of time can change brain-activity patterns in middle-aged and older adults.

Other groups have explored the effects of internet-search training on brain structure and function. Dong and associates 40 studied the influence of short-term internet-search training on white-matter microstructure via diffusion tensor imaging.

After 6 training days, they found that the 59 participants mean age 21 years showed increased fractional anisotropy diffusion tensor imaging scans in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus and within that region, decreased radial diffusivity. These findings suggest that short-term internet-search training may increase white-matter integrity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, which could result from increased myelination.

Shapira and colleagues 41 assessed the psychological effects of learning computer and internet-search methods. They offered a course to 22 older adults mean age 80 years , who were compared with 26 participants engaged in other activities. The investigators reported significant improvements in the intervention group in measures of life satisfaction, depression, loneliness, and self-control after 4 months, whereas the control group showed declines in each of these measures.

White and associates 42 performed a randomized controlled trial assessing the psychosocial impact of internet access to older adults during a 5-month period. Findings showing that mental stimulation and cognitive training improve memory in older adults 43 , 44 have led to the development of several memory apps and computer games.

Miller and associates 45 explored whether computerized brain-training exercises Dakim Brain Fitness improved cognitive performance in older adults without dementia mean age of 82 years. Neuropsychological testing at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months showed that the intervention group improved significantly in delayed memory, and the control group did not. Moreover, participants who played the computer program for at least 40 sessions over 6 months improved in immediate memory, delayed memory, and language.

These findings point to the potential benefit of cognitive training using a computerized, self-paced program. In a meta-analysis of computerized cognitive training, investigators found an overall moderate effect on cognition in mild cognitive impairment across 17 trials. Multitasking has been defined as performing two simultaneous tasks, which is only possible when the tasks are automatic, but it can also refer to rapid switching between tasks.

Research has shown that such task switching increases error rates. Anguera and colleagues 49 trained volunteers ages 60 to 85 years over 4 weeks using a videogame called NeuroRacer, in which players control a car on a winding road while responding to signs that randomly appear. Out of 46 participants, 16 were trained in multitasking both driving and sign reading , 15 in single-tasking mode active controls; either sign reading or driving , and 15 received no training no-contact controls.

Only the multitasking training group showed significant improvements in performance scores, which not only exceeded that of untrained individuals in their twenties but was maintained for 6 months without additional training. Moreover, the multitasking training improved other cognitive skills, including working memory and divided and sustained attention. Fluid intelligence refers to the capacity to reason and think flexibly and requires working memory, the ability to retain information over a brief period of time.

Investigators have found that training in working memory may improve fluid intelligence. All subjects received pre- and post-testing on a measure of fluid intelligence at the same time intervals. The four groups not only showed significant improvements in working memory, but also on tests of fluid intelligence. Moreover, results demonstrated that the longer the training period, the greater the improvement in fluid intelligence.

These results indicated successful transfer of improved working memory to improved fluid intelligence measures with a dose-dependent training effect. Videogames have been popular for decades, and many gamers who began playing in the s have continued to play through adulthood.

Despite potential negative health effects of excessive playing eg, attention deficits, social withdrawal, increased risk of obesity , recent research suggests potential benefits, such as improved visual attention processing, spatial visualization, reaction time, and mental rotation.

Negative effects of technology: What to know

People are more connected than ever, thanks in large part to rapid advancements in technology. While some forms of technology may have made positive changes in the world, there is evidence for the negative effects of technology and its overuse, as well. Social media and mobile devices may lead to psychological and physical issues, such as eyestrain and difficulty focusing on important tasks. They may also contribute to more serious health conditions, such as depression. The overuse of technology may have a more significant impact on developing children and teenagers.

Language: English Spanish French. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that frequent digital technology use has a significant impact—both negative and positive—on brain function and behavior. Potential harmful effects of extensive screen time and technology use include heightened attention-deficit symptoms, impaired emotional and social intelligence, technology addiction, social isolation, impaired brain development, and disrupted sleep. However, various apps, videogames, and other online tools may benefit brain health. Functional imaging scans show that internet-naive older adults who learn to search online show significant increases in brain neural activity during simulated internet searches.


IntroductionHumanity or Mankind has evolved from the essence that separates humans from beasts: the ability to use the mind for reason. Reason is the ability.


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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A dvances in science and technology drive the evolution of the weather and climate information system. Scientific, operational, and, increasingly, business requirements determine what observations to make, how the information should be analyzed, and what products to create. The scientific understanding generated by developing and using these data and products, together with improvements in instrumentation and computation, lead to a new set of requirements.

Essay, 2013

Technology has improved the general living standards of many people in the last few decades. Without technology, people would still be living within their geographical confines of their societies. Examples of technological advancements that have made life easier include things like the Internet, phones, tablets, TV, PS and movie and video games. However, these are just the positive attributes of technology; there are also a number of negative effects that it has brought upon the society in general. This research paper seeks to discuss these negative impacts of technology upon the society and the general way of living.

Все это было так неестественно, так непохоже на Хейла, а список преступлений больше напоминал перечень сданного в прачечную белья. Он признался во всем - в том, как понял, что Северная Дакота всего лишь призрак, в том, что нанял людей, чтобы те убили Энсея Танкадо и забрали у него кольцо, в том, что столкнул вниз Фила Чатрукьяна, потому что рассчитывал продать ключ от Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан дошла до последней строки. В ней говорилось о том, к чему она совершенно не была готова. Последние слова записки стали для нее сильнейшим ударом.

About the Impact of Technology upon Society

Коммандер спас ей жизнь. Стоя в темноте, она испытывала чувство огромного облегчения, смешанного, конечно же, с ощущением вины: агенты безопасности приближаются. Она глупейшим образом попала в ловушку, расставленную Хейлом, и Хейл сумел использовать ее против Стратмора.

Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Эти слова буквально преследовали. Она попыталась выбросить их из головы. Мысли ее вернулись к Дэвиду. Сьюзен надеялась, что с ним все в порядке.

Шум и мелькающие огни в шифровалке делали ее похожей на стартовую площадку ракеты. Хейл зашевелился и в ответ на каждое завывание сирены начал моргать. Неожиданно для самой себя Сьюзан схватила беретту, и Хейл, открыв глаза, увидел ее, стоящую с револьвером в руке, нацеленным ему в низ живота. - Где ключ? - потребовала. Хейл с трудом пришел в .

На стене ожила связанная с компьютером диаграмма. Сьюзан рассеянно подняла на нее глаза, безучастная к царившему вокруг нее безумию. Все в комнате дружно повернули головы. Диаграмма чем-то напоминала бычий глаз.

Не открыв своего алгоритма, он доказал АНБ, что тот не поддается дешифровке. Стратмор протянул Сьюзан газетную вырезку. Это был перевод рекламного сообщения Никкей симбун, японского аналога Уолл-стрит джорнал, о том, что японский программист Энсей Танкадо открыл математическую формулу, с помощью которой можно создавать не поддающиеся взлому шифры. Формула называется Цифровая крепость, говорилось в заметке, и доступна для ознакомления в Интернете. Программист намеревался выставить ее на аукционе и отдать тому, кто больше всех заплатит.

Они потеряли веру. Они стали параноиками. Они внезапно стали видеть врага в. И мы, те, кто близко к сердцу принимает интересы страны, оказались вынужденными бороться за наше право служить своей стране. Мы больше не миротворцы.

Пока техники тщетно старались отключить электропитание, собравшиеся на подиуме пытались понять расшифрованный текст. Дэвид Беккер и два оперативных агента тоже пробовали сделать это, сидя в мини-автобусе в Севилье. ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ Соши размышляла вслух: - Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки… Пёрл-Харбор.

При первых же признаках беды он тут же поднял бы тревогу - а в этих стенах сие означает, что он позвонил бы.  - Джабба сунул в рот кусочек сыра моцарелла.

Свет от монитора Стратмора отбрасывал на них жутковатую тень. Сьюзан старалась держаться поближе к шефу на небольшой платформе с металлическими поручнями. По мере того как они удалялись от двери, свет становился все более тусклым, и вскоре они оказались в полной темноте. Единственным освещением в шифровалке был разве что свет звезд над их головами, едва уловимое свечение проникало также сквозь разбитую стеклянную стену Третьего узла.

Фонд электронных границ сразу увидел в этом конфликт интересов и всячески пытался доказать, что АНБ намеренно создаст несовершенный алгоритм - такой, какой ему будет нетрудно взломать. Чтобы развеять эти опасения, конгресс объявил, что, когда алгоритм будет создан, его передадут для ознакомления лучшим математикам мира, которые должны будут оценить его качество. Команда криптографов АНБ под руководством Стратмора без особого энтузиазма создала алгоритм, который окрестила Попрыгунчиком, и представила его в конгресс для одобрения. Зарубежные ученые-математики проверили Попрыгунчика и единодушно подтвердили его высокое качество.

Она закрыла лицо руками.

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