Mirnas And Long Noncoding Rnas As Biomarkers In Human Diseases Pdf
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- The roles of long noncoding RNAs in breast cancer metastasis
- MiRNA and LncRNA as Potential Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Review
- Non-coding RNAs: long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs in endocrine-related cancers
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The roles of long noncoding RNAs in breast cancer metastasis
Since the discovery and classification of non-coding RNAs, their roles have gained great attention. In this respect, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs have been firmly demonstrated to be linked to regulation of gene expression and onset of human diseases, including rare genetic diseases; therefore they are suitable targets for therapeutic intervention. This issue, in the context of rare genetic diseases, is being considered by an increasing number of research groups and is of key interest to the health community. In an increasing number of rare genetic diseases, analysis of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs has been proven a promising strategy. In conclusion, a large number of approaches based on targeting microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs are expected in the field of molecular diagnosis and therapy, with a facilitated technological transfer in the case of rare genetic diseases, in virtue of the existing regulation concerning these diseases. The expression of eukaryotic genes is a multistep and complex process, finely regulated by many different factors and levels of control [ 1 ], including but not limited to transcription factors TFs , promoter sequences and enhancers [ 2 , 3 , 4 ], post-transcriptional regulation, and control of translation [ 5 ].
MiRNAs, ncRNAs of approximately 19—25 nucleotides in length, are involved in gene expression regulation either via degradation or silencing of the messenger RNAs mRNAs and have roles in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. LncRNAs can activate or repress gene expression through various mechanisms, acting alone or in combination with miRNAs and other molecules as part of various pathways. Our synthesis provides insight into the mechanisms involved in TNBC progression and has potential to aid the discovery of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. TNBC is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor ER , progesterone receptor PR , and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 HER2 , relative to normal tissue or other types of BC, as well as a high proliferative index determined by mitotic or Ki proliferative indices , high histological grade, and high rates of metastasis 2 — 4. TNBCs frequently undergo early metastasis to visceral organs and brain 5 — 7 and are more often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Furthermore, this neoplasm is often diagnosed at a relatively young age and is a major cause of female mortality 8 — Among these molecular subtypes, the BL2 subtype has the worst prognosis, and LAR tumors are associated with the best overall survival OS rates.
MiRNA and LncRNA as Potential Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Review
One database of transcriptomes of potential interest for readers of this review is the NURSA website www. Table 1 highlights features of these ncRNAs and their roles in cellular processes. Enhancers are relatively insensitive to position and distance of their target genes and about half are intragenic, which can result in inhibition or attenuation of nascent transcript elongation Cinghu et al. Table 1 Summary of ncRNAs in humans, excluding rRNA and tRNA, with their size, cellular location, aspects of biogenesis, function, citations for reviews for roles in various endocrine-related cancers and websites. Moreover, these RNAs are chemically modified, e. This review provides a brief overview of the identity, regulation and roles of miRNAs and lncRNAs in selected endocrine-related cancers. Because of the scope of published literature on these topics, this review is not a comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs and miRNAs in breast, prostate, endometrial and thyroid cancers.
Non-coding RNAs: long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs in endocrine-related cancers
Prolonged infection of uterine cervix epithelium with human papillomavirus HPV and constitutive expression of viral oncogenes have been recognized as the main cause of the complex molecular changes leading to transformation of cervical epithelial cells. Viral encoded circE7 has also demonstrated to overexpress E7 oncoprotein thus contributing to cell transformation. Cervical SCC is generally preceded by persistent squamous intraepithelial lesions SIL caused by HPV infection, therefore the detection of viral nucleic acids has shown to be valuable for the effective prevention of cervical cancer development in oncologic screening programs 3. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins encoded by high risk HPVs are considered the main players of the multistep transformation process affecting the infected cervical cells.
Cancers have a high mortality rate due to lack of suitable specific early diagnosis tumor biomarkers. Emerging evidence is accumulating that lncRNAs long noncoding RNAs are involved in tumorigenesis, tumor cells proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, extracellular lncRNAs can circulate in body fluids; they can be detected and strongly resist RNases.
Noncoding RNA s are emerging as potent and multifunctional regulators in all biological processes. In parallel, a rapidly growing number of studies has unravelled associations between aberrant noncoding RNA expression and human diseases. This research is opening new avenues to novel therapeutic approaches.