Deductive And Inductive Approach In Research Pdf

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Importance of Inductive and Deductive Approaches in Geographical Researches

Theory structures and informs social work research. Conversely, social work research structures and informs theory. Students become aware of the reciprocal relationship between theory and research when they consider the relationships between the two in inductive and deductive approaches. In both cases, theory is crucial but the relationship between theory and research differs for each approach. Inductive and deductive approaches to research are quite different, but they can also be complementary.

When a researcher utilizes an inductive approach , they begin by collecting data that is relevant to their topic of interest. At this stage, the researcher looks for patterns in the data, working to develop a theory that could explain those patterns. Thus, when researchers take an inductive approach, they start with a set of observations and then they move from those particular experiences to a more general set of propositions about those experiences.

In other words, they move from data to theory, or from the specific to the general. Figure 6. To understand this process, Allen and her colleagues analyzed the written narratives of 23 young men in which the men described how they learned about menstruation, what they thought of it when they first learned about it, and what they think of it now.

The authors analyzed data from focus groups with 20 young people at a homeless shelter. From these data they developed a set of recommendations for those interested in applied interventions that serve youth that are experiencing homelessness.

The researchers also developed hypotheses for people who might wish to conduct further investigation of the topic. Though Ferguson and her colleagues did not test the hypotheses that they developed from their analysis, their study ends where most deductive investigations begin: with a theory and a hypothesis derived from that theory. Researchers taking a deductive approach will start with a compelling social theory and then test its implications with data.

In other words, they utilize the same steps as inductive research, but they will reverse the order, moving from general to more specific levels.

Deductive research approach is most associated with scientific investigation. The researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon they are studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. Although not all social science researchers utilize a deductive approach, there are some excellent, recent examples of deductive research.

The authors developed their hypothesis from their reading of prior research and theories on the topic. Overall, the authors found support for their hypothesis. One might associate this research with critical theory. Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children.

One might associate this research with systems theory. While inductive and deductive approaches to research seem quite different, they can be rather complementary. In some cases, researchers will plan for their study to include multiple components, one inductive and the other deductive. In other cases, a researcher might begin their study planning to utilize only one approach but then discover along the way that the other approach is needed to help illuminate findings.

Here is an example of each such case. The original author of the textbook from which this textbook is adapted, Dr. Amy Blackstone, relates a story about her collaborative research on sexual harassment. We began the study knowing that we would like to take both a deductive and an inductive approach in our work. We therefore administered a quantitative survey, the responses to which we could analyze in order to test hypotheses, and also conducted qualitative interviews with a number of the survey participants.

The survey data were well suited to a deductive approach; we could analyze those data to test hypotheses that were generated based on theories of harassment. The interview data were well suited to an inductive approach; we looked for patterns across the interviews and then tried to make sense of those patterns by theorizing about them. We then tested our hypotheses by analyzing the survey data.

In general, we found support for the theory that posited that the current gender system, in which heteronormative men wield the most power in the workplace, explained workplace sexual harassment—not just of adult women but of younger women and men as well. Blackstone, n. Researchers may not set out to employ both approaches in their work, but sometimes their use of one approach leads them to the other.

Specifically, Sherman and Berk hypothesized that deterrence theory would provide a better explanation of the effects of arresting accused batterers than labeling theory. Deterrence theory predicts that arresting an accused spouse batterer will reduce future incidents of violence. Conversely, labeling theory predicts that arresting accused spouse batterers will increase future incidents. After conducting an experiment with the help of local police, Sherman and Berk found, that arrest did deter future incidents of violence, thus supporting their hypothesis that deterrence theory would better predict the effect of arrest.

In some cases, arrest deterred future incidents of violence while in other cases, arrest did not. These results left the researchers with new data that they needed to explain, so they utilized an inductive approach to make sense of their latest empirical observations.

The new studies revealed that arrest has a deterrent effect on individuals that are married and employed, while arrest may encourage future battering offenses in individuals that are unmarried and unemployed. Researchers thus turned to control theory to explain their observations, as it predicts that stakes in conformity are developed through social ties like marriage and employment.

Deductive approach — when a researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon they are studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories. Inductive approach — when a researcher starts with a set of observations and then moves from particular experiences to a more general set of propositions about those experiences.

Skip to content Learning Objectives Describe the inductive approach to research, and provide examples of inductive research Describe the deductive approach to research, and provide examples of deductive research Describe the ways that inductive and deductive approaches may be complementary.

Key Takeaways The inductive approach begins with a set of empirical observations, seeking patterns in those observations, and then theorizing about those patterns. The deductive approach begins with a theory, developing hypotheses from that theory, and then collecting and analyzing data to test those hypotheses. Inductive and deductive approaches to research can be employed together for a more complete understanding of the topic that a researcher is studying.

Glossary Deductive approach — when a researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon they are studying, and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories Inductive approach — when a researcher starts with a set of observations and then moves from particular experiences to a more general set of propositions about those experiences. Allen, K. More than just a punctuation mark: How boys and young men learn about menstruation. Journal of Family Issues, 32 , — Enhancing empowerment and leadership among homeless youth in agency and community settings: A grounded theory approach.

Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 28 , 1— Contemporary hate crimes, law enforcement, and the legacy of racial violence. American Sociological Review, 74 , — Classroom learning environments and the mental health of first grade children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52 , 4— Sexual harassment as a gendered expression of power.

American Sociological Review, 69 , 64— Presented at the meetings of the American Sociological Association. Investigating the social world: The process and practice of research. The specific deterrent effects of arrest for domestic assault.

American Sociological Review, 49 , — The deterrent effect of arrest in incidents of domestic violence: A Bayesian analysis of four field experiments. American Sociological Review, 57 , —; Pate, A. Formal and informal deterrents to domestic violence: The Dade county spouse assault experiment. American Sociological Review, 57 , —; Sherman, L.

Crime, punishment, and stake in conformity: Legal and informal control of domestic violence. American Sociological Review, 57 , — Saylor Foundation. Previous: 6. Next: 7. Share This Book Share on Twitter.

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Theory structures and informs social work research. Conversely, social work research structures and informs theory. Students become aware of the reciprocal relationship between theory and research when they consider the relationships between the two in inductive and deductive approaches. In both cases, theory is crucial but the relationship between theory and research differs for each approach. Inductive and deductive approaches to research are quite different, but they can also be complementary. When a researcher utilizes an inductive approach , they begin by collecting data that is relevant to their topic of interest. At this stage, the researcher looks for patterns in the data, working to develop a theory that could explain those patterns.

The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.


Those researchers developed methods to identify patterns using naturalistic and qualitative research approaches (Hughes et. al., ), (Martin et. al., ).


Inductive vs. deductive reasoning

View Stats. But by using an inductive approach, students use their logic to understand concepts and summarize it. The research method applied in this study is a descriptive-comparative method with a triangulation analysis technique. Instruments used in the study were a questionnaire for the students, observation sheets, and three-tier diagnostic test items for pretest and posttest.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for choosing the qualitative approach to research human resources practices, namely, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, rewards management, employee communication and participation, diversity management and work and life balance using deductive and inductive approaches to analyse data. The paper adopts an emic perspective that favours the study of transfer of human resource management practices from the point of view of employees and host country managers in subsidiaries of western multinational enterprises in Ghana.

Deductive Approach (Deductive Reasoning)

If a causal relationship or link seems to be implied by a particular theory or case example, it might be true in many cases. Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be derived from the propositions of the theory. In other words, deductive approach is concerned with deducting conclusions from premises or propositions.

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Published on April 18, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on November 11, The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory. Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalizations, and deductive reasoning the other way around. Table of contents Inductive research approach Deductive research approach Combining inductive and deductive research.

Inductive research approach

Theories structure and inform sociological research. So, too, does research structure and inform theory. The reciprocal relationship between theory and research often becomes evident to students new to these topics when they consider the relationships between theory and research in inductive and deductive approaches to research. In both cases, theory is crucial. But the relationship between theory and research differs for each approach.

Inductive and deductive approaches to research

5 Comments

  1. Barry F. 03.06.2021 at 15:45

    PDF | Research Methods. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.

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  3. Josephine B. 05.06.2021 at 15:47

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  4. Jonathan S. 05.06.2021 at 19:44

    Trochim () refers to two “broad methods of reasoning as the inductive and deductive approaches (p.1). He defines induction as moving from the specific to the.

  5. Andrea K. 08.06.2021 at 14:52

    Deductive and inductive approach in research pdf. In logic, we often refer to two broad methods of reasoning as The Naqasu and Indiicto approach. The Nakaso​.