Microwave And Rf Design Of Wireless Systems Pozar Pdf Creator

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Spurious-free dynamic range SFDR is the strength ratio of the fundamental signal to the strongest spurious signal in the output. It is also defined as a measure used to specify analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters ADCs and DACs, respectively and radio receivers.

Students will receive the diploma from each institution in which they will have spent at least 1 semester of study. Linear analogue circuits, Resistive and reactive circuits- energy -dissipated power. Low pass — high pass —band pass filters — transfer functions —Bode diagram.

Spurious-free dynamic range

Provisional Patent Application No. This invention relates to electronic circuits, and more particularly to circuits and methods for improving electrostatic discharge ESD tolerance and switching speed in integrated circuits ICs , such as ICs for radio frequency RF signal switching or processing.

The design of integrated circuits ICs , particularly ICs for radio frequency RF signal switching or processing, often requires trading off or balancing different performance and functional parameters. For example, a conventional RF signal switch IC capable of switching at high speed may exhibit poor linearity, while a highly linear RF signal switch IC may be only capable of switching at much lower frequencies.

As another example, providing protection against ESD events e. For example, a human body induced ESD event may reach 15, volts or more and have a short rise time, on the order of nanoseconds. However, providing adequate ESD guard circuitry or structures in an IC may affect other circuit parameters, such as switching time. The present invention provides system, apparatus, and methods for improvement of both ESD tolerance and switching time in such devices.

More specifically, embodiments of the invention provide an improved FET structure having accumulated charge sink ACS circuit, fast switching times, and improved ESD tolerance. Disclosed embodiments include circuit architectures that include a FET having a gate resistor and an ACS circuit, with the addition of respective alternative ACS resistors coupled to the ACS circuit and directly or indirectly a node on one side or the other of the corresponding gate resistor i.

By inserting larger resistance value ACS resistors in series with the ACS circuit, during a positive polarity ESD strike, the total impedance seen at the base of the parasitic bipolar junction transistor BJT device inherent in a FET is large, compared to the low impedance that would otherwise be presented by just the ACS circuit. The addition of an ACS resistor essentially prevents significant impairment of the parasitic BJT protection mechanism.

The ACS circuit function remains intact for linearity enhancement. In essence, in accordance with this description, the circuit parameters for determining switching speed of an ACS enabled FET are separated from the circuit parameters for setting an ESD tolerance level.

The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims. Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements. Shown are a plurality of switching modules in a stacked configuration. In the illustrated embodiment, each switching module includes a FET that includes conventional drain D , source S , and gate G connections.

Connected to the gate of each FET is a gate resistor In general, the stack height N of the circuit architecture i. In some embodiments, only one switching module may be needed. As shown in FIG. The control signal port would typically be coupled to a buffer or driver circuit not shown. The first port and the second port may be dedicated alternately as either an input or an output port, or may function as both input and output ports.

In such embodiments, during an OFF state, when the source-to-gate voltage Vsg is not sufficient to turn the gate to the ON state i. Semiconductor devices operating in an ACR may introduce parasitic capacitance non-linearities, affect the drain-to-source breakdown voltage, and introduce harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion to a signal processed by the circuit architecture All of these ACR effects are especially problematic for RF applications, particularly when the circuit architecture is employed in communication systems, where signal distortion may cause unacceptable interface with adjacent signals, violating system operating guidelines and government signal transmission rules.

The disclosures in each of U. In particular, referring again to FIG. However, it should be understood that the invention encompasses use of an ACS circuit that includes the equivalent of a diode function i. The larger the gate resistor value, the greater the ESD tolerance.

A larger gate resistor in combination with the C GS and C GD parasitic capacitances introduces a higher time delay RC time constant for the FET , and thus an increased switching time, Tsw other parameters, such as gate width and other parasitic capacitances, may affect switching time, but the value of the gate resistor is a principal determinant.

Increasing the switching time Tsw of a circuit architecture may make the circuit unusable or unsuitable for some applications, particularly some RF switching applications. In some embodiments, a larger gate resistor may introduce a frequency dependency with respect to signal insertion loss. Further, a higher value gate resistor occupies a corresponding larger amount of IC die area.

In summary, desiring a small IC die size points to using small value gate resistors, specifying fast switching time points to using small value gate resistors, and having high ESD tolerance i.

It may be noted that the ESD tolerance of one or more switching modules is also dependent on other parameters and factors, such as: the stack height, N, which determines the gate voltage bounce which helps divide applied voltage from drain-to-gate-to-source; the actual total width and other geometries of a FET device which relate to current handling; and the number of metal contacts and ohmic losses and connections to the FET device.

If some of these factors and parameters are not properly designed or accounted for with respect to a particular circuit, then they may be a—or even the—primary contributor to an ESD failure. It was experimentally determined by the present inventors that the reduction in ESD tolerance on a version of an ACS enabled FET with a lower resistance value gate resistor was primarily observed with a positive ESD strike potential relative to ground and not with a negative ESD strike potential.

This asymmetry in the circuit performance was determined by the present inventors to be attributable to the ACS diode , which is a unidirectional device and thus presents different characteristics when exposed to different polarities. For fuller understanding, as is well known, a FET formed on an insulator effectively forms a parasitic bipolar junction transistor BJT device within its body. The BJT device may be able to direct some or all ESD energy into regions of the body below the more sensitive FET gate-body junction and thereby prevent or limit damage in the operative transistor body area near the gate G, source S, and drain D.

For example, during a negative ESD event e. However, during a positive ESD event e. In such an event, the base current I B may not be sufficient to activate the parasitic BJT device, and thus may not direct sufficient energy from the ESD strike away from the gate junction to prevent damage.

A negative polarity ESD strike did not affect the parasitic BJT protection mechanism because the ACS diode remained reversed biased during the negative polarity strike and the impedance at the body remained high. Based on this new understanding of the interaction of the ACS diode with ESD events and the tradeoffs of increased ESD tolerance versus decreased switching speed by increasing the value of the gate resistor , embodiments of the invention provide an improved FET structure having an ACS circuit, fast switching times, and improved ESD tolerance.

Both circuit architectures , are similar to the circuit architecture shown in FIG. Thus, for example, some resistance may be placed on both sides of the ACS diode to form an equivalent series connection for the ACS resistors , Further, the switching modules shown in both figures may be stacked in the manner shown in FIG.

In implementation in ICs, both the gate resistor and the ACS resistors , may be fabricated using the same or different technologies and structures. The first circuit architecture and second circuit architecture both allow the value of the gate resistor to be low to achieve a fast switching time for the FET By inserting larger resistance value ACS resistors , in series with the ACS diode , during a positive polarity ESD strike, the total impedance seen at the parasitic BJT base is large compared to the low impedance that would otherwise be presented by just the ACS diode , thus allowing the BJT protection mechanism to properly function.

Thus, the addition of an ACS resistor , essentially prevents significant impairment of the parasitic BJT protection mechanism. The ACS diode function remains intact for linearity enhancement. The value of the gate resistor and an ACS resistor , can be selected as follows: The gate resistor can be chosen to meet the switching time requirement for an application of the circuit architecture , For example, a typical value for a switching time of less than about 70 nsec would be about 10 kilo-ohms.

The ACS resistors , should be as large as possible to improve ESD tolerance, yet be reasonable with consideration for IC die area impact, and not so large as to negate or substantially impair the function of the ACS diode i. ESD tolerance provided by the ACS resistors , may be computed or measured in terms of discharge rate and is usually on the order of milliseconds, which, for example, would allow for an ACS resistor , resistance value from about kilo-ohms to about a few mega-ohms noting that, in the case of the second circuit architecture , the resistance coupled to the ACS diode includes both the ACS resistor and the series connected gate resistor In general, the resistance value of the ACS resistors , should be much greater than the resistance of the gate resistor , typically at least 10 times greater.

Another aspect of the invention includes a method for improving ESD tolerance and switching speed in an integrated circuit that includes an ACS circuit, including adding a resistance in series with the ACS circuit. Yet another aspect of the invention includes a method for improving ESD tolerance and switching speed in an integrated circuit, including:.

STEP 1: fabricating an integrated circuit including a field effect transistor FET having a gate, a drain, a source, and a body;. Further aspects of the above method include: sizing the resistance of the ACS resistance to provide substantial ESD tolerance without substantially impairing the function of the ACS circuit; setting the ACS resistance to be at least 10 times the resistance of the gate resistor; connecting the series-connected ACS resistance and the ACS circuit to the gate resistor of the FET between the gate resistor and the gate; connecting the series-connected ACS resistance and the ACS circuit to the gate resistor of the FET at a node opposite to the connection of the gate resistor to the gate; using a diode for the ACS circuit; and fabricating the integrated circuit on one of a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a silicon-on-sapphire substrate.

In some applications, the circuit architectures , in FIGS. In other applications, the circuit architectures , may modulate a signal transmitted between the first port and the second port by means of the control signal port Examples of portable devices in which the circuit architectures , may be used include mobile phones, personal data assistants PDAs , tablets, laptops, digital cameras, digital audio and video players, and other devices including ESD sensitive elements or modules.

Examples of non-portable devices in which the circuit architectures , may be used include automotive, communication, test equipment, medical, RADAR, and satellite devices. Other applications that may include the novel apparatus and systems of various embodiments include electronic circuitry used in high-speed computers, communication and signal processing circuitry, modems, single or multi-processor modules, single or multiple embedded processors, data switches, and application-specific modules, including multilayer, multi-chip modules.

Such apparatus and systems may further be included as sub-components within a variety of electronic systems, such as televisions, cellular telephones, personal computers e. Some embodiments may include a number of methods. A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. It is to be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, some of the steps described above may be order independent, and thus can be performed in an order different from that described.

Various activities described with respect to the methods identified above can be executed in repetitive, serial, or parallel fashion. It is to be understood that the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not to limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the following claims, and that other embodiments are within the scope of the claims. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. Embodiments of systems, methods, and apparatus for improving ESD tolerance and switching time for semiconductor devices including metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS field effect transistors FETs , and particularly to MOSFETs fabricated on semiconductor-on-insulator and silicon-on-sapphire substrates.

What is claimed is: 1. An electronic circuit including: a. The electronic circuit of claim 1 , wherein the resistance of the ACS resistance is sized to provide substantial ESD tolerance without substantially impairing the function of the ACS circuit.

The electronic circuit of claim 1 , wherein the resistance of the ACS resistance has at least 10 times the resistance of the gate resistor.

The electronic circuit of claim 1 , wherein the ACS circuit is a diode. An integrated circuit including at least two stacked field effect transistors FET each having a gate, a drain, a source, and a body, each FET further including: a. The integrated circuit of claim 5 , wherein the resistance of the ACS resistance is sized to provide substantial ESD tolerance without substantially impairing the function of the ACS circuit.

The integrated circuit of claim 5 , wherein the resistance of the ACS resistance has at least 10 times the resistance of the gate resistor. The integrated circuit of claim 5 , wherein the ACS circuit is a diode. The integrated circuit of claim 5 , wherein the integrated circuit is fabricated on one of a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a silicon-on-sapphire substrate. A method for improving electrostatic discharge tolerance and switching speed in an integrated circuit, including: a.

The method of claim 10 , further including sizing the resistance of the ACS resistance to provide substantial ESD tolerance without substantially impairing the function of the ACS circuit. The method of claim 10 , further including setting the resistance of the ACS resistance to be at least 10 times the resistance of the gate resistor. The method of claim 10 , wherein the ACS circuit is a diode. The method of claim 10 , wherein the step of fabricating an integrated circuit includes fabricating the integrated circuit on one of a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a silicon-on-sapphire substrate.

An integrated circuit including at least one field effect transistor FET configured to switch or process a radio frequency signal, each FET having a gate, a drain, a source, and a body, each FET further including: a. The integrated circuit of claim 15 , wherein the total resistance of the at least one ACS resistance has at least 10 times the resistance of the gate resistor.

The integrated circuit of claim 15 , wherein the integrated circuit is fabricated on one of a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a silicon-on-sapphire substrate. USP true

Microwave and Rf Design of Wireless Systems

Here we will provide reviews on some of the available books that can help you with microwaves. There are hundreds of titles out there, so this is going to take some time to come up with the best. Got a favorite book on this topic? Send us a book review, and win a pocket knife! We've sorted the books into a couple of categories.

Provisional Patent Application No. This invention relates to electronic circuits, and more particularly to circuits and methods for improving electrostatic discharge ESD tolerance and switching speed in integrated circuits ICs , such as ICs for radio frequency RF signal switching or processing. The design of integrated circuits ICs , particularly ICs for radio frequency RF signal switching or processing, often requires trading off or balancing different performance and functional parameters. For example, a conventional RF signal switch IC capable of switching at high speed may exhibit poor linearity, while a highly linear RF signal switch IC may be only capable of switching at much lower frequencies. As another example, providing protection against ESD events e. For example, a human body induced ESD event may reach 15, volts or more and have a short rise time, on the order of nanoseconds. However, providing adequate ESD guard circuitry or structures in an IC may affect other circuit parameters, such as switching time.

Here we will provide reviews on some of the available books that can help you with microwaves. There are hundreds of titles out there, so this is going to take some time to come up with the best. Got a favorite book on this topic? Send us a book review, and win a pocket knife! We've sorted the books into a couple of categories. Let's translate the phase "a couple" for anyone who was hoping for higher writing standards. It means 2, 3 or maybe 4.


David Pozar, author of Microwave Engineering, Second Edition, has written a new text that introduces students to the field of wireless communications. This text​.


Books on Microwave Engineering

Microwave Engineering 2nd Ed David Pozar. Rf And Microwave Engineering Pdf. E Book. Microwave And Rf Engineering Pdf.

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Microwave engineering 16 marks

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What is a PLL Synthesizer? A frequency synthesizer allows the designer to generate a variety of output frequencies as multiples of a single reference frequency. The main application is in generating local oscillator LO signals for the up- and down-conversion of RF signals.

The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. Rather, it indicates that microwaves are "small" having shorter wavelengths , compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology. The boundaries between far infrared , terahertz radiation , microwaves, and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study. At the high end of the band they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere, limiting practical communication distances to around a kilometer. Microwaves are widely used in modern technology, for example in point-to-point communication links, wireless networks , microwave radio relay networks, radar , satellite and spacecraft communication , medical diathermy and cancer treatment, remote sensing , radio astronomy , particle accelerators , spectroscopy , industrial heating, collision avoidance systems , garage door openers and keyless entry systems , and for cooking food in microwave ovens. Microwaves occupy a place in the electromagnetic spectrum with frequency above ordinary radio waves , and below infrared light:.

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2 Comments

  1. Lucinda V. 27.05.2021 at 07:11

    Microwave and Rf Design of Wireless Systems(David bpwnjfoundation.org).pdf.

  2. Nuriya C. 28.05.2021 at 15:14

    Pdf Microwave Engineering 3e David M Pozar Solutions Manual. Microwave And Rf Design Of Wireless Systems. Ee f Lecture 01 Intro.