Opportunities And Challenges Of Wireless Sensor Networks In Smart Grid Pdf
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- A Comprehensive WSN-Based Approach to Efficiently Manage a Smart Grid
- Networking architectures and protocols for smart city systems
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Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. This paper presents issues and trepidations associated with transferring from conventional methods of electricity monitoring and distribution to the cyberspace, especially in developing countries like Nigeria where current approaches have failed to provide regular, reliable electric power. The Smart Power Grid is a developing concept already put to test, successfully, in very advanced countries.
A Comprehensive WSN-Based Approach to Efficiently Manage a Smart Grid
Metrics details. The smart city model is used by many organizations for large cities around the world to significantly enhance and improve the quality of life of the inhabitants, improve the utilization of city resources, and reduce operational costs.
However, in order to reach these important objectives, efficient networking and communication protocols are needed to provide the necessary coordination and control of the various system components.
In this paper, we identify the networking characteristics and requirements of smart city applications, and identify the networking protocols that can be used to support the various data traffic flows that are needed between the different components. In addition, we provide illustrations of networking architectures of selected smart city systems, which include smart grid, smart home energy management, smart water, UAV and commercial aircraft safety, and pipeline monitoring and control systems.
A number of large cities around the world are investigating applying the smart city model to heighten the living quality of their inhabitants and enhance the utilization of the city infrastructure and resource s. Various advanced technologies and techniques supporting such models provide smart services to improve the performance and operations in healthcare, transportation, energy, education, and many other fields.
At the same time these services reduce operational costs and resource consumption in smart cities. Utilizing these technologies provides many advantages and services for smart cities. WSNs are used to provide real-time monitoring of the conditions of smart city resources, and infrastructures [ 1 ]. The IoT facilitates the integration of the physical objects in a city network [ 2 ].
CPS are used to provide useful interactions between the cyber world and the physical world in smart cities [ 3 ]. Robotics and UAVs are used to provide automation and offer useful services for smart cities [ 4 ]. Such services include enhancement delivery of services, environmental monitoring, traffic monitoring, security and safety controls, and telecommunication services [ 5 ].
Fog computing is used to provide low latency support, location awareness, better mobility support, and streaming and real-time support for smart city applications [ 6 ]. Cloud computing provides a scalable and cost effective computation and data storage platform to support smart city applications [ 7 ].
Big data analytics is used to provide intelligent and optimized short and long term decisions based on collected data to enhance smart city services [ 8 ]. These advanced technologies are used to implement a number of smart city services [ 9 — 11 ]. Examples of these smart services are intelligent transportation services that can be used to enhance route planning and congestion avoidance in city streets, provide intelligent traffic light controls and parking services, enhance vehicular safety, and enable self-driving cars.
Other examples are smart energy services that provide better energy decisions for more efficient energy consumption in smart cities. Applications of these smart energy services are used to support smart grids, and smart buildings, as well as provide better utilization of renewable energy. Other smart services involve structural health monitoring as well as real-time monitoring of water networks, bridges, tunnels, train and subway rails, and oil and gas pipelines.
Additional services include smart services for environmental monitoring and smart services for public safety and security. These smart city services do not only need the various advanced technologies discussed here, but also need reliable and robust networking and communication infrastructures to enable efficient exchange of messages among the different components of the systems that provide a particular service.
Smart city services are designed at different scales, which require various networking and communication technologies for their implementation and operations. Furthermore, different network and communication models and approaches can be utilized for smart city services. This paper investigates the communication and network issues of smart city systems.
It also investigates networking technologies, architectures, and communication requirements for such systems. The suitability of existing network protocols for different smart city services will be discussed. Although there are significant research efforts to investigate different issues in smart cities and provide solutions for these issues, very little research has been done to investigate the networking and communication parts of smart city systems, which constitute the main objective of this paper.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of related work in this field. Section 3 includes an overview of some smart city applications. Section 4 presents networking architectures and communication requirements for smart city applications.
Section 5 offers an illustration of selected smart city systems. Section 6 discusses open issues in the area of networking and communication for smart city systems. Finally, Section 7 concludes the paper and provides some future research directions. There are a few papers published addressing the network and communication issues for smart cities. In this section we discuss some of the work presented in these papers.
Zanella et al. In addition, the authors presented and discussed a proof-of-concept implementation of IoT in the city of Padova, Italy. There are generally two common approaches to offer data access to things in IoT. The first is using multi-hop mesh networks with short-range communication in the unlicensed spectrum among the network nodes. The second is using long-range cellular technologies in the licensed frequency band.
From its name, this communication technology can provide low-rate, long-range transmission in the unlicensed frequency bands using star topology. These features can be very useful for some smart city applications. Leccese et al. Sanchez et al. Some work more related to our contribution in this paper is investigating network architectures for smart cities.
Wan et al. The authors also conducted a case study using this architecture for vehicular applications. Gaur et al. This architecture is mainly for wireless sensor networks applications in a smart city. Jin et al. The last paper [ 17 ] is the closest to our contributions in the paper, thus we will elaborate on it.
The autonomous network architecture is usually not directly linked to public networks such as the Internet. It can be connected though gateways if this link is needed.
This network architecture is suitable for some smart city applications such as automatic parking management in which most of the network connections are mainly to support the application. The QoS requirements in this network architecture are mainly dependent on the requirements of the application. In the ubiquitous network architecture, smart objects including the sensors and actuators are part of the Internet.
Information from these smart objects can be obtained by authorized users and applications through the Internet directly or through intermediate servers which serve as sinks that gather data from the connected smart objects. The smart objects can be connected to the Internet through multitier and multiradio. The QoS of such network architecture can be challenging due to the level of heterogenous network components used.
The application layer overlay network architecture is suitable for large scale networks with a large number of distributed nodes. These nodes can be logically structured in clusters with cluster heads that can run in-network data processing task to reduce network traffics. One application of this network architecture is using a wireless sensor network WSN for environmental monitoring.
The QoS for applications suitable for such architecture is generally tolerable to some level. The service-oriented network architecture is based on an innovative network architecture, called Information Driven Architecture IDRA [ 18 ]. In this architecture different network functions such as addressing, naming, forwarding, and routing are provided as network services.
These network services can be utilized to provide different network configurations to suit different applications. Although, this approach can be very useful, flexible and can provide advanced network features, it requires new network components technology. The participatory sensing network architecture is considered a special case and a new model of IoT. In this model, residents through their consumer devices collect, analyze, and share sensor data.
Some possible applications of this architecture are environmental monitoring, intelligent transportation, and healthcare. QoS in such network can be challenging as humans are the main source of data and humans can be lazy, privacy-worried, error-prone, and misbehaving.
Unlike other related work, our contributions in this paper is mainly in investigating networking architectures focusing on the communication characteristics and requirements of the main smart city applications including smart buildings, smart grids, gas and oil pipeline monitoring and control, smart water network, intelligent transportation, manufacturing control and monitoring, and unmanned aerial vehicle applications for smart cities.
The works we studied usually focus on a single attribute or characteristic such as quality of service in [ 17 ]. We considered several communication characteristics and requirements including bandwidth, delay tolerance, power consumption, reliability, security, heterogeneous network support, network type, and mobility support. In addition, we studied the suitability of different networking protocols for different smart city applications.
These protocols are IEEE With this, we are providing a comprehensive study in networking architectures and protocols for smart city systems. Development and operation of smart city applications can face many challenges.
To identify and understand these challenges, we discuss some important smart city applications used or proposed for different domains. We highlight their benefits as well as their development and operational challenges.
This will help us identify the type of support needed by the networking platforms designed for smart city applications. In the energy domain, smart city applications are used to add values such as efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electric power in smart grids [ 19 ].
A smart grid is a renovated electrical grid system that uses information and communication technology ICT to collect and act on available information about the behavior of suppliers and consumers in an automated fashion.
A smart grid uses CPS to provide self-monitoring and advanced control mechanisms for power productions and consumer needs to increase grid efficiency and reliability.
In addition, CPS systems are used to control the processes of generating renewable energy from hydropower plants [ 20 ] and wind power plants [ 21 ]. Furthermore, some applications are used to monitor and control energy consumptions in smart buildings [ 3 ]. Smart building systems are usually equipped with different types of sensor nodes that monitor the current energy usage and environmental conditions.
These sensors report their observations and measurements to a centralized monitoring and control system. The control system implements intelligent algorithms to control the sub-systems used in the buildings to optimize energy usage based on the sensed observations and current operational and environmental conditions.
In the transportation domain, an important smart city application area that recently received high attention is intelligent transportation. Vehicular safety applications constitute one of the most important classes of such applications.
There are many safety applications for vehicles including lane change warning messages, emergency breaking, collision avoidance mechanisms, and blind spot monitoring. These applications provide fully automatic or semi-automatic actions to enhance driving safety.
The most important features of such applications are the real-time and reliability support in detection and response. All aspects of vehicular safety applications including threat observations, decision making, communication, and actions must be reliable and able to run in real-time.
Networking architectures and protocols for smart city systems
Opportunities and Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid Request Full-text Paper PDF Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Grid Communications: Cyber Attacks, Intrusion Detection System and.
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The Smart Grid SG is conceived as the evolution of the current electrical grid representing a big leap in terms of efficiency, reliability and flexibility compared to today's electrical network. However, the SG has posed significant challenges to utility operators—mainly very harsh radio propagation conditions and the lack of appropriate systems to empower WSN devices—making most of the commercial widespread solutions inadequate. In this context, and as a main contribution, we have designed a comprehensive ad-hoc WSN-based solution for the Smart Grid SENSED-SG that focuses on specific implementations of the MAC, the network and the application layers to attain maximum performance and to successfully deal with any arising hurdles. Our approach has been exhaustively evaluated by computer simulations and mathematical analysis, as well as validation within real test-beds deployed in controlled environments. The increase in the number of different energy sources the current power grid has to accommodate and regulate leads to an unavoidable increase in the complexity of grid; despite that, this power grid still lacks an effective sensing and control platform that could help provide more intelligence to the management process.
Metrics details. The smart city model is used by many organizations for large cities around the world to significantly enhance and improve the quality of life of the inhabitants, improve the utilization of city resources, and reduce operational costs. However, in order to reach these important objectives, efficient networking and communication protocols are needed to provide the necessary coordination and control of the various system components.
Smart grids, the next generation of electric grids, require the deployment of sophisticated monitoring and control systems to enhance their operational efficiency. Wireless sensor networks WSNs have been considered as a promising communication technology for the monitoring and control of smart grid operation. They bring significant advantages such as, rapid deployment, low cost and scalability.
We present some of the ongoing standardisation work in M2M communications followed by the application of machine-to-machine M2M communications to smart grid. We analyse and discuss the enabling technologies in M2M and present an overview of the communications challenges and research opportunities with a focus on wireless sensor networks and their applications in a smart grid environment. Smart grid SG networks will be characterised by the tight integration of a flexible and secure communications network with novel energy management techniques requiring a very large number of sensor and actuator nodes.
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