Inner Ear Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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inner ear anatomy and physiology pdf

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The following article is written to provide a general understanding of the structures within the auditory system and how they function. The auditory system is comprised of three components; the outer, middle, and inner ear, all of which work together to transfer sounds from the environment to the brain. Pinna The pinna or auricle is a concave cartilaginous structure, which collects and directs sound waves traveling in air into the ear canal or external auditory meatus.

Hearing is the process by which the ear transforms sound vibrations in the external environment into nerve impulses that are conveyed to the brain , where they are interpreted as sounds. Sounds are produced when vibrating objects, such as the plucked string of a guitar , produce pressure pulses of vibrating air molecules , better known as sound waves. The ear can distinguish different subjective aspects of a sound, such as its loudness and pitch , by detecting and analyzing different physical characteristics of the waves.

Human ear , organ of hearing and equilibrium that detects and analyzes sound by transduction or the conversion of sound waves into electrochemical impulses and maintains the sense of balance equilibrium. The human ear, like that of other mammals , contains sense organs that serve two quite different functions: that of hearing and that of postural equilibrium and coordination of head and eye movements. Anatomically, the ear has three distinguishable parts: the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the visible portion called the auricle , or pinna, which projects from the side of the head, and the short external auditory canal , the inner end of which is closed by the tympanic membrane , commonly called the eardrum.

Anatomy and physiology of the ear

The ears are organs that provide two main functions — hearing and balance — that depend on specialized receptors called hair cells. Sound waves enter through the outer ear, move into the middle ear, and finally reach the inner ear and its intricate network of nerves, bones, canals, and cells.

There are three bones located in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus and the stapes. Collectively, all three bones comprise the ossicles. The malleus is the outermost and largest of the three small bones in the middle ear, and reaches an average length of about eight millimeters in the…. The human ear consists of three regions called the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.

The oval window, also known as the fenestra ovalis, is a…. The auricularis anterior muscle is located between the ear and the eye. It is in an area with few other points of insertion or origination, which is…. The posterior auricular vein is the name for a vein that is formed via the collection of several venous tributaries situated behind the ear.

The vestibulocochlear nerve sometimes referred to as the auditory nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves. This group includes all the nerves…. The ear canal, also called the external acoustic meatus, is a passage comprised of bone and skin leading to the eardrum. The ear is comprised of the…. The posterior auricular artery is part of the circulatory system of the head and face. The posterior auricular artery emerges at the back of the jaw….

Combined with the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system helps to fight off disease, helps the body maintain a normal body temperature, and…. Humans are sexual, meaning that both a male and a female are needed to reproduce. Each is equipped with specific organs capable of producing specific…. Read this next. Incus Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Malleus Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Oval window Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.

Auricularis anterior Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Posterior auricular vein Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Vestibulocochlear nerve Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. External acoustic meatus Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.

Posterior auricular artery Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. Circulatory Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network.

Middle ear

Auditory System pp Cite as. Since the grosser outlines of inner ear anatomy are given in many textbooks of anatomy, physiology and otolaryngology, only a brief description is given here as an introduction to the ultra-structure of the cochlea with which this chapter is mainly concerned. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.

Your inner ear is the deepest part of your ear. The inner ear has two special jobs. It changes sound waves to electrical signals nerve impulses. This allows the brain to hear and understand sounds. The inner ear is also important for balance. The inner ear is at the end of the ear tubes.

The Inner Ear

The ears are organs that provide two main functions — hearing and balance — that depend on specialized receptors called hair cells. Sound waves enter through the outer ear, move into the middle ear, and finally reach the inner ear and its intricate network of nerves, bones, canals, and cells. There are three bones located in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus and the stapes.

Your Inner Ear Explained

The ear can be divided into three parts: the outer ear , middle ear and inner ear. The inner ear is the innermost part of the ear, and houses the vestibulocochlear organs.

Anatomy of the Inner Ear

The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum , and external to the oval window of the inner ear. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles , which transfer the vibrations of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear. The hollow space of the middle ear is also known as the tympanic cavity and is surrounded by the tympanic part of the temporal bone. The auditory tube also known as the Eustachian tube or the pharyngotympanic tube joins the tympanic cavity with the nasal cavity nasopharynx , allowing pressure to equalize between the middle ear and throat. The primary function of the middle ear is to efficiently transfer acoustic energy from compression waves in air to fluid—membrane waves within the cochlea.

 - Стоп.  - И быстро пробежала глазами информацию. Здесь имелась масса всяческих сведений.  - И откуда мы знаем, что именно ищем. Одно различие от природы, другое - рукотворное. Плутоний впервые был открыт… - Число, - напомнил Джабба.  - Нам нужно число.


The ear canal is about 4 centimetres long and consists of an outer and inner part. The outer portion is lined with hairy skin containing sweat glands and oily.


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