Knowledge And Attitude Regarding Obstetrics Ultrasound Among Pregnant Women Research Proposal Pdf
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- Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery
- The Open Public Health Journal
- Desire for prenatal gender disclosure among primigravidae in Enugu, Nigeria
Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery
Chidozie E. Mbada, Olubukayomi E. Adebayo, Adebanjo B. Adeyemi, Olujide O. Arije, Olumide O. Dada, Olabisi A. Akinwande, Taofeek O. Awotidebe, Ibidun A. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines.
This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises ANEx. The cross-sectional study recruited pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria.
Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Relaxation and breathing Prevention of back pain risk Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx , while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively. There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx.
A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal care services [ 1 , 2 ]. Wang and Apgar [ 6 ] submitted that empirical data on the impact of exercise on the mother, the fetus, and the course of pregnancy are still limited and results of the few studies in humans are often equivocal or contradictory.
However, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [ 3 ] recommended that pregnant women can exercise moderately for 30 minutes on most days of the week. Studies have recommended that women should initiate or continue exercise in most pregnancies [ 3 , 4 , 7 ] as it is safe for mother and not harmful to the foetus [ 3 , 8 , 9 ].
The health benefits of regular physical exercise in pregnancy include maintenance and improvement of physical fitness and cardiovascular endurance [ 4 ], prevention of excessive gestational weight gain and glucose intolerance [ 10 , 11 ], conditioning of the muscles needed to facilitate labour [ 7 , 12 , 13 ], and improvement in psychological adjustment to changes in pregnancy [ 4 ]. Furthermore, exercise in pregnancy is correlated with a decrease in many common problems of pregnancy [ 14 ] and the stress of exercises produces certain adaptation such as healthier placenta and increased ability to deal with short decrease in oxygen [ 15 ].
In spite of the fact that exercise programs during pregnancy and after childbirth are designed to minimize impairment and help the woman maintain or regain function while she is preparing for the arrival of the baby and then caring for the infant [ 3 , 16 , 17 ], it is submitted that women are not meeting the exercise recommendations of the previous studies [ 3 , 18 , 19 ].
Thornton et al. Therefore, an assessment of knowledge and attitude about exercise in pregnancy may help to determine whether or not women will participate in exercise during and after pregnancy.
This study was designed to assess knowledge and attitude of Nigerian pregnant women towards antenatal exercises. One hundred and eighty-nine pregnant women were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional survey. Informed consent of all respondents was required for participation in the study. The instrument for the study was an adapted questionnaire from a previous study by Ribeiro and Milanez [ 7 ] and was validated by expert reviews in a pilot study. The self-administered questionnaire sought information on sociodemographic, knowledge and attitude towards exercise in pregnancy.
The Yoruba version the local language spoken in the area where the study was conducted of the questionnaire was administered to respondents who were not literate in English. The summation of all the checked items on the questionnaire at test and retest was compared. The questionnaire items yielded an agreement percentage that ranged from Pregnant women who were not literate in either English or Yoruba were excluded from the study.
Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, and frequency distribution were used to summarize data. Alpha level was set at 0. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version One hundred and eighty-nine respondents participated in this study.
The mean age of the respondents was years. The sociodemographic characteristics of respondents are presented in Table 1. The result shows that the respondents were preponderantly of Christian religion A majority of the respondents had tertiary education The maternal-obstetrics characteristics of respondents are presented in Table 2.
A majority of the respondents were nulliparous Respondents had knowledge of pelvic floor exercise However, swimming Most of the respondents agreed that exercise in pregnancy would lead to reduction in risk of back pain On the other hand, lower extremities swelling The summative knowledge score revealed that Fifteen point eight percent of the respondents had negative attitude towards exercise. Lack of feeling to exercise There was no significant association between knowledge about benefits of antenatal exercises and respondents characteristics Table 6.
However, there was significant association between knowledge about contraindications to antenatal exercises and age Table 7. Table 8 shows that age and occupation significantly influence attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. Furthermore, Chi-square test of association revealed a significant association between attitude and each piece of knowledge about benefit of and contraindication to antenatal exercise Table 9. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of Nigerian pregnant women towards antenatal exercises.
The women in this study were generally young and were mostly Christians and traders or business persons. Furthermore, most of the women in this study were nulliparous and commenced antenatal care within 1 to 3 months of pregnancy. Therefore, it is believed that the findings of this study may have been influenced by the maternal sociodemographic characteristics.
Most of the women in this study had knowledge of pelvic floor exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, back care exercise, and relaxation and breathing exercise as types of antenatal exercises.
However, swimming and cycling were mostly not known as types of antenatal exercises. Conversely, the American Pregnancy Association [ 33 ] ranked exercises in pregnancy in order as kegel, swimming, walking, bicycling, aerobics, and dance. It is adducible that the low level of knowledge of swimming among women in this study may not be unconnected with prevalent hydrophobia and cultural myths that makes swimming among pregnant women a taboo. In addition, lack of swimming skills and limited availability of swimming pools may have contributed to low level of knowledge of swimming as an important antenatal exercise.
Furthermore, cycling or riding a stationary bike is a far-flung antenatal exercise in the study setting and could be linked to nonavailability or nonaffordability of bicycle ergometer for personal use. More so, it is not advisable for pregnant women to ride conventional bicycles on most Nigerian roads as there are no dedicated bikeways.
With regard to knowledge about effect of exercise on pregnancy, most of the women in this study believe that antenatal exercise reduces risk of back pain, promotes better ability to cope with labour and delivery, and prevents excessive weight gain.
These findings are consistent with previous reports [ 12 , 34 , 35 ]. In contrast to the American College of Obstetrician and Gynecologists [ 3 ] recommendation on contraindication to antenatal exercise, the women in this study mostly implicated swelling of the lower extremities, extreme weight gain or loss, and presence of back pain during pregnancy as contraindications to exercise during pregnancy.
These conditions are at best relative contraindications which should not rule out engagement in exercise during pregnancy except there are underlying medical or obstetric complications. However, there is paucity of data on contraindications to exercise during pregnancy. Although, there appears to be lack of evidence on why pregnant women without medical conditions should not be allowed to engage in exercise, but some level of caution is needed in the presence of some respiratory conditions [ 36 , 37 ] or orthopedic conditions such as back and hip pain or joint problems [ 12 , 38 , 39 ].
Nonetheless, the result of this study revealed that the knowledge about benefits of antenatal exercises was not influenced by maternal sociodemographic characteristics. However, age was found to significantly influence knowledge about contraindications to antenatal exercises. Therefore, a majority of the study samples seem to have positive attitude towards antenatal exercises in pregnancy. This finding is in tandem with recent studies that have reported a positive paradigm shift in attitudes toward exercise during pregnancy over the past two decades with increasing numbers of pregnant women participating in physical activities, exercises, and sports activities [ 3 — 5 ].
Improved knowledge of safety of exercise for both the mother and fetus during pregnancy in most cases has been linked to the willingness to initiate or continue antenatal exercises [ 3 — 5 ]. It was found in this study that attitude towards exercise in pregnancy was influenced mostly by tiredness, lack of feeling to exercise, and insufficient information on exercise.
Similar findings have been reported by other authors [ 7 , 19 , 20 , 40 ]. Specifically, in the study by Duncombe et al. Ribeiro and Milanez [ 7 ] submitted that the fact that the principal barriers to exercising described by the pregnant women were lack of time and feeling tired and uncomfortable may suggest that many women do not feel motivated to exercise despite being aware of the possible benefits that physical exercise could offer to their health and the health of their baby.
However, the result of this study revealed that the age and occupation significantly influence attitude towards antenatal exercises in pregnancy. Furthermore, knowledge about benefit of and contraindication to antenatal exercise significantly influenced the attitude of the women towards exercise in pregnancy.
This finding is consistent with previous reports that revealed significant association between adequate knowledge of antenatal exercises and attitudes toward exercise during pregnancy [ 7 , 22 , 41 ]. This study provides an empirical data on knowledge and attitude of Nigerian pregnant women towards exercise in pregnancy. Hitherto, there is an apparent dearth of studies on exercise culture of women in sub-Sahara Africa. The outcomes of this study underscore the need of health education programmes on the importance of exercise in pregnancy among women from sub-Sahara Africa countries.
Physical exercise plays a significant role in maternal health and creating awareness of its benefit and contraindications among local women of childbearing age will improve engagement in and attitude towards exercise, improve maternal outcomes, and eventually decrease the burden of pregnancy-related preventable conditions on the health care system.
However, the outcome of this study is limited in its generalizability and needs to be validated in other settings. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge about antenatal exercises. However, the women had positive attitude towards exercise. Knowledge about benefit of and contraindication to antenatal exercise significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
The authors gratefully acknowledge all the women who volunteered for this study. Also, they are grateful to the administrative and nursing staff of the different hospitals selected for this survey. Mbada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The Open Public Health Journal
Nutrition during pregnancy is an important element for the pregnant women and their developing fetus, they must take enough calories and nutrients to provide the essential requirements for both themselves and their fetus and to prevent complications of abnormal weight gain in pregnancy. To determine the effect of the nutritional health education program on changing knowledge, attitude, and practice towards a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy, obtaining optimal weight gain and consequently its effect on maternal and fetal outcomes. An interventional study pre-post test , in Zagazig university antenatal care outpatient clinic was conducted. Health education sessions were applied to the pregnant females and their knowledge, attitude, and practice about healthy nutrition were assessed before and after the intervention. Ultrasound was performed, maternal and fetal outcomes were detected. This study was conducted on pregnant females from whom 9 cases had excluded at the time of delivery due to the detection of ultrasound abnormalities and 16 women were dropped out during the follow-up period. After the nutritional education program, the proportions of adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice were increased from
Desire for prenatal gender disclosure among primigravidae in Enugu, Nigeria
Ultrasound has become a routine part of care for pregnant women in Uganda, being one of a range of techniques used in screening. However, it differs from most others because it allows women to view their babies. Routine obstetric sonography is now globally recognized as one of the ways through which maternal mortality can be reduced.
Chidozie E. Mbada, Olubukayomi E. Adebayo, Adebanjo B. Adeyemi, Olujide O. Arije, Olumide O.
Background: Ultrasonography is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. It proves accuracy in calculation of gestational age, earlier identification of multiple pregnancies, and diagnosis of nonviable pregnancies and certain fetal malformations. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and cross-sectional study conducted among pregnant women that attended antenatal ultrasound scan at AKTH. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used. Only women that agreed to participate were included in the study.
Metrics details. The World Health Organization Antenatal Guidelines and the South African Maternal and Child Health Guidelines recommend one early antenatal ultrasound scan to establish gestational age and to detect multiple pregnancies and fetal abnormalities. Prior research indicates that ultrasound scan can also increase parental—fetal attachment. We aim to establish whether, compared to routine care, messages to promote parental attachment and healthy child development, conducted during one or two pregnancy ultrasound scans, improve early child development and growth, exclusive breastfeeding, parental—child interactions and prenatal and postnatal clinic attendance. The effect of messages to sensitise mothers and fathers to fetal development will be tested in a three-armed randomised trial with mothers and their partners from Soweto, Johannesburg in each arm. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that first-time prospective mothers and fathers enjoy seeing their fetus during ultrasound scan and that it is an emotional experience. A number of studies have found that ultrasound scan increases maternal attachment during pregnancy, a predictor of positive parent—infant interactions which, in turn, promotes healthy infant development.