Cosmetics And Toiletries Development Production And Use Pdf As Desktop
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Nanocosmetics pp Cite as.
- CBD in Cosmetics: A Practical Primer
- Cosmetic Science and Technology Third Edition
- Phospholipids in Cosmetic Carriers
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CBD in Cosmetics: A Practical Primer
Nanocosmetics pp Cite as. Phospholipids are attractive components in cosmetic products because of their natural origin and multifunctional properties.
They are used, technically as surface-active compounds, but also as cosmetic actives and modulator of skin penetration. Three classes of phospholipids are being used in cosmetics: saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and monoacylphospholipids lyso-phospholipids.
Whereas the use of monoacylphospholipids is limited to technical use as emulsifiers, the cosmetic use of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids is much broader.
The latter are used as actives; additionally saturated phospholipids are used as surface-active compounds, whereas unsaturated phospholipids are suitable to enhance skin penetration. The relation of phospholipids to nanotechnology is apparent when they are, e. Regulatory authorities discriminate, however, between nanoparticles comprising solid inorganic non-biodegradable particles, with potential systemic toxicity, and flexible lipid biodegradable carriers, respectively, comprising, e.
Since basically the particle characteristics in the formulation and the component of the particles are believed to cause the desired beneficial cosmetic skin effects, in this chapter the use and degree of skin interaction of especially natural phospholipids as cosmetics ingredient in traditional and nano-cosmetic carriers are described and demonstrated by means of illustrative products. Since a few decades, material scientists developed new materials which could be prepared in particle form at the nanoscale.
By introducing these materials in research in natural sciences, it was overlooked that nanoparticles were already known since a much longer time e. Since the newly developed nano-materials were unknown and the use of nanoparticles was launched as a hype, raising unrealistic expectations regarding new medical therapies, soon warnings on the medical, dietetic and cosmetic use of such particles came up, simply because of the lack of information on the toxicology of these unknown materials in the nano-size range.
Unfortunately, also nanoparticles with decade-long records of safe use and proven existence in nature and food were linked with this way of thinking and consideration, primarily by not very well-informed scientists, as potentially toxic.
They assess new products containing particles in the nano-range from a scientifically sound objective and a case-by-case risk-benefit evaluation, based on careful and when needed extensive characterization and toxicity testing of the nano-sized particles. The US-FDA makes very clear that nano-sized lipid carriers belong to the class of flexible, biodegradable particles which upon administration onto the skin penetrate into the skin and fall apart in the skin [ 1 ].
Compared to the other class of nanoparticles comprising solid nano-sized particles, which do not fall apart, there is no risk of systemic absorption and systemic toxicity of these lipid carriers. In cosmetic products, phospholipids are popular as biodegradable natural ingredients.
They can be used in classical formulations like suspensions, oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and mixed micelles. These formulation types can be made or have particle sizes which lie in the range of nanoparticles. Based on the point of view of the US-FDA, the question can be raised whether the particle size of such lipid carriers, having a particle size in the nano-range liposomes, oil-in-water nano-emulsions , will influence the degree of skin interaction.
The skin distribution and penetration of lipid particles varying in size and composition have been studied primarily in pharmaceutical research. Liposomes were primarily of interest due to their intriguing cell-like structure, enabling the encapsulation of water-soluble drugs which needed to be transported through the skin to achieve transdermal delivery and systemic therapy.
It is now generally understood that intact liposomes flexible or not are not able to pass the skin to any significant extent [ 4 ] but are excellent carriers to enhance the skin interaction of co-formulated compounds in cosmetic products. The results and status of this pharmaceutical research and the relevance for cosmetic use and resulting knowledge on the skin interaction of the phospholipids and delivery of compounds of cosmetic interest to the skin are described and discussed below.
Phospholipid molecules with a cylindrical shape which form upon hydration phospholipid bilayers and liposomal structures. Phospholipid molecules with either cone shape above or inverted cone below shape, forming upon hydration micelles or inverted micelles, respectively.
Adapted from Kraft et al. Phospholipids with unsaturated fatty acids can be converted by means of hydrogenation to phospholipids containing saturated fatty acids. At skin temperatures, liposomal dispersions with hydrogenated lipids are therefore in the gel state and rigid in nature.
Hygroscopicity of a unsaturated soybean phosphatidylcholine with n. The saturated soybean phosphatidylcholine is under these conditions not hygroscopic. In case phospholipids are fully hydrated in the form of liposomes, they can bind 20 molecules of water per phospholipid molecule [ 9 ].
Higher grade fractionated phospholipids of, e. Hydrogenated saturated phospholipids have a white color. The odour of phospholipids is slightly nutty. When needed, addition of fragrances can easily mask this odour. Natural phospholipids used in cosmetics are mainly coming from soybeans, sunflower seed or rapeseed.
Sunflower phospholipids are considered to be non-GMO; soybean and rapeseed canola seed phospholipids can be supplied in a non-GMO quality as well. Synthetic phospholipids are hardly being used by the cosmetic industry [ 10 ]. In the literature on the application of phospholipids in cosmetics, there is some confusion on the use of the terms lecithin and phosphatidylcholine.
Products containing, e. In the description of the discussed phospholipid products in this manuscript, the weight percentage of phosphatidylcholine in these products is indicated.
In cosmetic products, lecithins containing varying amounts of phosphatidylcholine and unsaturated and saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines, and to a lesser extent monoacylphospholipids lysolecithins , are used.
The phosphatidylcholine content of the lecithins can be enriched using fractionation methods like solvent extraction and chromatography. After fractionation, several grades can be produced starting to form crude lecithin containing ca. Phospholipids are essential natural components of the membrane of all living cells; they are non-toxic and possess very high skin tolerability. Structure of the human skin layers, relevant for treatment with cosmetic products.
The stratum corneum is the target skin layer for cosmetic products. It is the utmost significant barrier of the epidermis, even that it is not thicker than a sheet of paper. The corneocytes represent the bricks and the intercellular lipids, in which the corneocytes are embedded, the mortar.
The number of corneocyte layers is correspondingly higher at thicker stratum corneum 14—23 layers [ 14 ]. Please note that these measurements were made with stratum corneum of different species and most values are obtained by various and indirect methods. However, these structural data are crucial for the still ongoing discussion, if and how colloidal systems containing phospholipids may penetrate intact the stratum corneum see Sects. The epidermis is a very dynamic system; in about four weeks, the epidermis is renewed in younger humans.
The renewal of the stratum corneum starts at the border between epidermis and dermis, the stratum basale. The stratum basale consists of a layer of elongated basal cells which rest on the basement membrane. These basal cells are connected via desmosomes and are continuously proliferating.
These newly produced cells are called keratinocytes which can again divide themselves 4—5 times and delaminate from the stratum basale still connected to their surrounding neighbours via desmosomes. They migrate into the stratum spinosum. The name was attributed to their spiny appearance. The keratinocytes migrate from this point to the stratum granulosum named after the granular appearance of the cytoplasm.
These keratinocytes start to produce in their cytosol so-called lamellar bodies, which contain a variety of lipids and enzymes see details below. Also keratohyalin granules are provided by the keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, which contain precursor proteins for the keratin core of the finished corneocytes. This results not only in the formation of the intercellular lipid matrix, but also of a hydrophobic lipid envelope. This corneocyte lipid envelope CLE see, e.
Also proteins are cross-linked in this envelope and make the corneocyte envelope even tighter [ 20 ]. This whole envelope structure reduces absorption of substances into the corneocytes. For these reasons, most of the active substances applied onto the skin are diffusing along the lipid lamellae in the intercellular regions.
During migration closer to the stratum corneum region, the keratinocytes start to become non-viable corneocytes by losing DNA, RNA and almost all organelles.
The stratum compactum is the tightest part of the stratum corneum, which is also due to the corneodesmosomes successor of the desmosomes which keep the corneocytes together. These corneosomes are hydrolysed closer to the skin surface, as this is necessary for the desquamation at the surface and to be shed from the skin surface exfoliation to maintain homoeostasis. There is a pronounced pH gradient across the stratum corneum, starting at the skin surface with 4.
After complete removal of the stratum corneum by stripping, a pH of 6. The acidified skin surface functions as a deterrent to skin infections by, e. Modified after Feingold [ 25 ]. These metabolic activities are in the healthy skin in steady state. The enzymes and the phospho lipid concentrations in the different regions of the epidermis have been determined in numerous studies.
Type I secretory phospholipase A 2 sPLA 2 activity in tape strips of human skin could be detected [ 26 ]. Immuno-histochemical staining of skin slices with anti-porcine pancreatic sPLA 2 revealed the primary location of sPLA 2 at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum junction.
This supports the notion raised earlier [ 27 ] that sPLA 2 hydrolyses the phospholipids secreted from lamellar bodies and serves as producer of specific fatty acids improving thereby the barrier properties of the stratum corneum and acidifying the upper part of the stratum corneum. In this earlier study [ 27 ] done in mice, the putative sPLA 2 was blocked by bromophenacyl bromide and MJ, which reduced the fatty acid content in the upper stratum corneum layers and caused thereby a perturbation of the barrier function, and epidermal hyperplasia.
This defect could be reversed by topical application of free or esterified to phospholipids fatty acids. This also proved that the barrier impairment is not caused by the accumulation of phospholipids in the upper layer of the stratum corneum.
Besides enzymatic degradation by means of PLA 2 , phospholipase D may also play a role [ 9 ]. Stratification of lipid species in human epidermis, redrawn after Lampe et al. Regional variations in lipid weight per cent and distribution of significant lipid species in the stratum corneum; values in weight percent.
Adapted from Lampe et al. Concentration values for the gradient of lipid classes across the stratum corneum [ 32 ] were measured. The gradient was quite significant for free fatty acids, for which the fatty acid content decreased from 6.
A decrease in ceramides and cholesterol from the surface to the lower parts was statistically significant as well. A peculiar gradient profile was found for phospholipids, as the phospholipid content at the surface and the basal site of the stratum corneum are quite low 2.
This might be due to the synthesis of phospholipids in this layer of the stratum corneum see Fig. The fatty acid composition of the few detected phospholipids in stratum corneum comprised of , and fatty acid chains, which reflects the fatty acid composition of the viable epidermis phospholipids [ 29 ] coarsely.
It has to be emphasized that neither phospholipids nor glycosphingolipids are present [ 29 ] in the outer layers of the human stratum corneum stratum disjunctum. To the knowledge of the authors, very little is known regarding which specific phospholipid enzymes, involved in the anabolic construction of phospholipids, are expressed in the epidermis.
Additionally, the regulation of phospholipid synthesis in the epidermis has not been delineated. Further studies in this area are clearly needed, given the requirement for phospholipids for the formation of lamellar bodies, and as sources of free fatty acids, and for the low pH of the stratum corneum.
Finally, one example should accentuate the rather complex interplay between skin region, cells, lipids and metabolism.
Lipids are secreted at the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface into an extracellular environment at neutral pH.
Cosmetic Science and Technology Third Edition
Its product range includes shower gels, beauty soaps, hair shampoos, bath additives and hair conditioners. The other important part of this project is that it is fully automatic. The use of soap and warm running water for hand washing remains an effective method for reducing the levels of hand borne microbiological contamination. With support from the Conrad N. Marketing Project Report. The daily production report is prepared with the help of the information which is obtained from the forms which are filled out by the people each day for a movie or any program on TV to summarize the total production of the day. Red imported fire ants are pests of urban, agricultural and wildlife areas and can pose a serious health threat to plants and animals.
Phospholipids in Cosmetic Carriers
Maia Campos III. I Pharmacist, Masters and Ph. Vitamins A and E and ceramides have been widely used in cosmetic moisturizing products, and these are one of the most important cosmetic and body care products. The measurements were performed on the forearm of volunteers at 7 and 30 days after daily use twice a day of the products used in the study.
This paper aims to explore the factors influencing the purchasing patterns of eco-friendly cosmetics and beauty care products among female customers in Mauritius. It also investigates upon the relative significance of these factors in predicting the preference to buy and recommend eco-friendly cosmetics and beauty care products to others. The paper applies the data reduction technique by using exploratory factor analysis on a sample of female consumers and condenses a set of 35 attributes into a list of eight comprehensible factors influencing the purchasing patterns of eco-friendly and beauty care products among females in Mauritius.
List of Classes with Explanatory Notes Class 1 Chemicals for use in industry, science and photography, as well as in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; fire extinguishing and fire prevention compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; substances for tanning animal skins and hides; adhesives for use in industry; putties and other paste fillers; compost, manures, fertilizers; biological preparations for use in industry and science. Explanatory Note Class 1 includes mainly chemical products for use in industry, science and agriculture, including those which go to the making of products belonging to other classes. Class 2 includes mainly paints, colorants and preparations used for protection against corrosion.
Cosmetic Formulation Pdf. Ed Faulkner s Coloring the Cosmetic World: Using Pigments in Decorative Cosmetic Formulations has become my go to reference for the fundamentals of color in cosmetics and now Color Cosmetics: A Practical Guide to Formulation is the perfect complement for understanding the complexities of using pigments in formulation. Uphold safety regulation and execute quality.
Lux Soap Project Report Pdf
Выслушай меня внимательно, - попросил Стратмор. Сьюзан была ошеломлена. ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час. Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты. Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа. В нем ничего не .
Так или иначе, он попал в западню. - Тогда почему бы не вызвать службу безопасности, которая могла бы его задержать. - Пока рано, - сказал Стратмор. - Если служба безопасности обнаружит затянувшуюся надолго работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, перед нами возникнет целый ряд новых проблем. Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери.
И оба идете со. - В качестве заложников? - холодно усмехнулся Стратмор.
- Он повернулся к бригаде своих помощников. - Кто знает, какая разница между этими элементами. На лицах тех застыло недоумение. - Давайте же, ребята.
Нельзя было даже оглянуться: такси остановится в любой момент и снова начнется стрельба. Однако выстрелов не последовало. Мотоцикл каким-то чудом перевалил через гребень склона, и перед Беккером предстал центр города. Городские огни сияли, как звезды в ночном небе. Он направил мотоцикл через кустарник и, спрыгнув на нем с бордюрного камня, оказался на асфальте.
Она безуспешно пыталась высвободиться. - Я сделал это ради нас обоих. Мы созданы друг для друга. Сьюзан, я люблю .