Traditional Ceremonies And Natinal Bonding Pdf
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- Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
- Food and celebrations
- Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
Click on the accompanying image to download and read the full document using Adobe's Acrobat Reader. In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This section outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross-cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.
Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system.
Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
Nepal is named for the Kathmandu Valley, where the nation's founder established a capital in the late eighteenth century. Nepali culture represents a fusion of Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Mongolian influences, the result of a long history of migration, conquest, and trade. Location and Geography. Nepal is a roughly rectangular country with an area of , square miles , square kilometers. To the south, west, and east it is bordered by Indian states; to the north lies Tibet. Nepal is home to the Himalayan Mountains, including Mount Everest.
From the summit of Everest, the topography plunges to just above sea level at the Gangetic Plain on the southern border. This drop divides the country into three horizontal zones: the high mountains, the lush central hills, and the flat, arid Terai region in the south. Fast-moving, snow-fed rivers cut through the hills and mountains from north to south, carving deep valleys and steep ridges. The rugged topography has created numerous ecological niches to which different ethnic groups have adapted.
Although trade has brought distinct ethnic groups into contact, the geography has created diversity in language and subsistence practices. The result is a country with over thirty-six ethnic groups and over fifty languages. The population in was just over Although infant mortality rates are extremely high, fertility rates are higher. High birth rates in rural areas have led to land shortages, forcing immigration to the Terai, where farmland is more plentiful, and to urban areas, where jobs are available.
Migration into cities has led to over-crowding and pollution. The Kathmandu Valley has a population of approximately , Linguistic Affiliation.
After conquering much of the territory that constitutes modern Nepal, King Prithvi Narayan Shah — established Gorkhali Nepali as the national language. Nepali is an Indo-European language derived from Sanskrit with which it shares and most residents speak at least some Nepali, which is the medium of government, education, and most radio and television broadcasts. For many people Nepali is secondary to the language of their ethnic group or region. This situation puts certain groups at a disadvantage in terms of education and civil service positions.
Since the institution of a multiparty democracy in , linguistic issues have emerged as hotly debated topics. The culture has many symbols from Hindu and Buddhist sources. Auspicious signs, including the ancient Hindu swastika and Shiva's trident, decorate buses, trucks, and walls.
Other significant symbols are the emblems tree, plow, sun used to designate political parties. Prominent among symbols for the nation as a whole are the national flower and bird, the rhododendron and danfe; the flag; the plumed crown worn by the kings; and the crossed kukhris curved knives of the Gurkhas, mercenary regiments that have fought for the British Army in a number of wars. Images of the current monarch and the royal family are displayed in many homes and places of business.
In nationalistic rhetoric the metaphor of a garden with many different kinds of flowers is used to symbolize national unity amid cultural diversity. Emergence of the Nation.
Mongolian tribes from the east called Kiratis brought Buddhism in the seventh Nepal or eighth century B. Hinduism flourished in the third and fourth centuries C. The Hindu Malla dynasties reigned in the Kathmandu Valley between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, encouraging tolerance toward Buddhism and an orthodox, caste-oriented form of Hinduism.
Since unification in the late eighteenth century and through the hundred-year period of Rana rule, the culture of hill Hindus, Parbatiya, has been dominant. The birth of the nation is dated to Prithvi Narayan Shah's conquest of the Kathmandu Valley kingdoms in The expansionist reigns of Shah and his successors carved out a territory twice the size of modern Nepal. However, territorial clashes with the Chinese in the late eighteenth century and the British in the early nineteenth century pushed the borders back to their current configuration.
National Identity. To unify a geographically and culturally divided land, Shah perpetuated the culture and language of high-caste Hindus and instituted a social hierarchy in which non-Hindus as well as Hindus were ranked according to caste-based principles.
Caste laws were further articulated in the National Code of By privileging the language and culture of high-caste Hindus, the state has marginalized non-Hindu and low-caste groups. Resentment in recent years has led to the organization of ethnopolitical parties, agitation for minority rights, and talk about the formation of a separate state for Mongolian ethnic groups.
Despite ethnic unrest, Nepalis have a strong sense of national identity and pride. Sacred Hindu and Buddhist sites and the spectacular mountains draw tourists and pilgrims and give citizens a sense of importance in the world. Other natural resources, such as rivers and flora and fauna are a source of national pride. Ethnic Relations. The population consists of numerous racial, cultural, and linguistic groups that often are divided into three broad categories: Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, and indigenous Nepalese.
Village houses are usually clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. They have settled primarily in the lower hills and river valleys and the Terai.
The Tibeto-Nepalese have distinctively Mongolian features and speak Tibeto-Burmese languages; these groups occupy the higher hills and mountainous areas. Different groups within this category practice Buddhism, animism, or Hinduism. There are scattered tribes of indigenous Nepalis, whose origins probably predate the arrival of Indo- and Tibeto-Nepalese peoples. Hindu castes and Buddhist and animist ethnic groups were historically collapsed into a single caste hierarchy.
At the top are high-caste Hindus. Below them are alcohol-drinking matwali castes, which include Mongolian ethnic groups. At the bottom are untouchable Hindu castes that have traditionally performed occupations considered defiling by higher castes. The Newars of the Kathmandu Valley have a caste system that has been absorbed into the national caste hierarchy. Historically, members of the highest castes have owned the majority of land and enjoyed the greatest political and economic privileges.
Members of lower castes have been excluded from political representation and economic opportunities. The untouchable castes were not permitted to own land, and their civil liberties were circumscribed by law. Caste discrimination is officially illegal but has not disappeared.
In , 80 percent of positions in the civil service, army, and police were occupied by members of the two highest castes. Nepal historically was one of the least urbanized countries in the world, but urbanization is accelerating, especially in the capital, and urban sprawl and pollution have become serious problems. Kathmandu and the neighboring cities of Patan and Bhaktapur are known for pagoda-style and shikhara temples, Buddhist stupas, palaces, and multistory brick houses with elaborately carved wooden door frames and screened windows.
Although the largest and most famous buildings are well maintained, many smaller temples and older residential buildings are falling into disrepair. At the height of British rule in India, the Rana rulers incorporated Western architectural styles into palaces and public buildings. Rana palaces convey a sense of grandeur and clear separation from the peasantry.
The current king's palace's scale and fortress-like quality illustrate the distance between king and commoner. Rural architecture is generally very simple, reflecting the building styles of different caste and ethnic groups, the materials available, and the climate. Rural houses generally have one or two stories and are made of mud brick with a thatched roof. Village houses tend to be clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. Food in Daily Life. Many Nepalis do not feel that they have eaten a real meal unless it has included a sizable helping of rice.
Most residents eat a large rice meal twice a day, usually at midmorning and in the early evening. Rice generally is served with dal, a lentil dish, and tarkari, a cooked vegetable. Often, the meal includes a pickle achar, made of a fruit or vegetable. In poorer and higher-altitude areas, where rice is scarce, the staple is dhiro, a thick mush made of corn or millet.
In areas where wheat is plentiful, rice may be supplemented by flat bread, roti. Most families eat from individual plates while seated on the floor. Though some urbanites use Western utensils, it is more common to eat with the hands. Villagers celebrate the end of the plowing season. Most Nepalese are subsistence farmers. Conventions regarding eating and drinking are tied to caste. Orthodox high-caste Hindus are strictly vegetarian and do not drink alcohol. Other castes may drink alcohol and eat pork and even beef.
Traditionally, caste rules also dictate who may eat with or accept food from whom. Members of the higher castes were particularly reluctant to eat food prepared by strangers.
Consequently, eating out has not been a major part of the culture. However, caste rules are relaxing to suit the modern world, and the tourist economy is making restaurants a common feature of urban life.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. At weddings and other important life-cycle events, feasts are generally hosted by the families directly involved, and numerous guests are invited. At such occasions, it is customary to seat guests on woven grass mats on the ground outside one's home, often in lines separating castes and honoring people of high status. Food is served on leaf plates, which can be easily disposed of. These customs, however, like most others, vary by caste-ethnic groups, and are changing rapidly to suit modern tastes.
Basic Economy. The large majority of the people are subsistence farmers who grow rice, maize, millet, barley, wheat, and vegetables. At low altitudes, agriculture is the principal means of subsistence, while at higher altitudes agropastoralism prevails.
Many households maintain chickens and goats. However, few families own more than a small number of cows, water buffalo, or yaks because the mountainous topography does not provide grazing land for large animals.
Food and celebrations
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One of the best things about travelling is trying different food. But just as interesting as the food itself is the experience of sharing the meal with other people. One of my fondest memories is of family beach picnics on 1st January, somewhere quite near to the equator — a memorable start to each new year. Every year for many years the people of Milpa Alta, Mexico, have prepared a feast in the week before Christmas. Sixty thousand tamales and 15, litres of hot chocolate are made in less than a week, not too much and not too little for the thousands of people who show up for the feast. The people responsible for organising La Rejunta are called the majordomos. The stages in the organisation of La Rejunta are the same every year.
PDF | On Jan 1, , Kevin Robins published Tradition and translation: national culture in its (or English) national traditions and cultures have described the cultural released from these bonds by little men and women vigorously snipping.
Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
Nepal is named for the Kathmandu Valley, where the nation's founder established a capital in the late eighteenth century. Nepali culture represents a fusion of Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Mongolian influences, the result of a long history of migration, conquest, and trade. Location and Geography.
We all want to belong. In high school, and especially in college when people leave their hometowns and are trying to fit in to a new environment, these clubs can feel like a lifeline. Hazing can often be confidentially reported to school officials.
The river crossing point was a hype of activity on Saturday August 26, as the only pontoon and canoes ferried vehicles and people between the East and West Bank. Zambians from all walks of life, including tourists made their way to Mize, home to the Likumbi Lya Mize traditional ceremony of the Vaka Chinyama people. This cultural activity encompasses the Chokwe, Luchazi and the Mbunda tribes, who together with the Luvale make up the Vaka Chinyama Cha Mukwamayi communities.
Она старательно расшифровывала текст, завороженная тем, как на первый взгляд произвольный набор цифр превращался в красивые стихи. В тот момент она поняла, что нашла свою любовь - шифры и криптография отныне станут делом ее жизни. Почти через двадцать лет, получив степень магистра математики в Университете Джонса Хопкинса и окончив аспирантуру по теории чисел со стипендией Массачусетского технологического института, она представила докторскую диссертацию- Криптографические методы, протоколы и алгоритмы ручного шифрования.
Вы уверены. - Туризм - моя профессия! - отрезал Клушар. - Я их сразу узнаю. Он гулял в парке с подружкой. Беккер понял, что с каждой минутой дело все больше запутывается.
Она посмотрела на часы, потом на Стратмора.