Materials And Components In Electronics Pdf
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- 300+ TOP MATERIALS and COMPONENTS Questions and Answers pdf
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- How Electronic Components Work
Electronic gadgets have become an integral part of our lives. They have made our lives more comfortable and convenient. From aviation to medical and healthcare industries, electronic gadgets have a wide range of applications in the modern world.
300+ TOP MATERIALS and COMPONENTS Questions and Answers pdf
Electronic gadgets have become an integral part of our lives. They have made our lives more comfortable and convenient. From aviation to medical and healthcare industries, electronic gadgets have a wide range of applications in the modern world. In fact, the electronics revolution and the computer revolution go hand in hand. Most gadgets have tiny electronic circuits that can control machines and process information.
Simply put, electronic circuits are the lifelines of various electrical appliances. This guide explains in detail about common electronic components used in electronic circuits and how they work. In this article I will provide an overview on electronic circuits. Then I will provide more information on 7 different types of components. An electronic circuit is a structure that directs and controls electric current to perform various functions including signal amplification, computation, and data transfer.
It comprises several different components such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes. Conductive wires or traces are used to connect the components to each other. However, a circuit is complete only if it starts and ends at the same point, forming a loop. The complexity and the number of components in an electronic circuit may change depending on its application.
However, the simplest circuit consists of three elements, including a conducting path, a voltage source, and a load. The electric current flows through the conducting path. Though copper wires are used in simple circuits, they are rapidly being replaced by conductive traces.
Conductive traces are nothing but copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. The primary function of a circuit is to allow electric current to pass through it safely. So, the first key element is the voltage source. It is a two-terminal device such as a battery, generators or power systems that provide a potential difference voltage between two points in the circuit so that current can flow through it.
A load is an element in the circuit that consumes power to perform a particular function. A light bulb is the simplest load. Complex circuits, however, have different loads such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, and transistors. As mentioned before, a circuit must always form a loop to allow the current to flow through it. In other words, any circuit that does not form a loop is an open circuit. A closed circuit is one that forms a loop without any interruptions.
Thus, it is the exact opposite of an open circuit. For example, a circuit connected to a dead battery may not perform any work, but it is still a closed circuit. In the case of short-circuit, a low-resistance connection forms between two points in an electric circuit. As a result, the current tends to flow through this newly formed connection rather than along the intended path.
However, short circuits usually lead to serious accidents as the current can flow at dangerously high levels. Hence, a short circuit can damage electronic equipment, cause batteries to explode, and even start a fire in commercial and residential buildings. Most electronic appliances require complex electronic circuits. It comprises a plastic board with connecting copper tracks on one side and lots of holes to affix the components. When the layout of a circuit board is printed chemically onto a plastic board, it is called a printed circuit board or PCB.
Though PCBs can offer a lot of advantages, most modern instruments such as computers and mobiles require complex circuits, having thousands and even millions of components. They are the tiny electronic circuits that can fit inside a small silicon chip. Jack Kilby invented the first integrated circuit in at Texas Instruments. The sole purpose of ICs is to increase the efficiency of the electronic devices, while reducing their size and manufacturing cost.
Over the years, integrated circuits have become increasingly sophisticated as technology continues to evolve. Thanks to modern technology, electronic circuit building process has been completely automated, especially for building ICs and PCBs. The number and arrangement of components in a circuit may vary depending on its complexity. However, it is built using a small number of standard components. The following components are used to construct electronic circuits.
Capacitors are widely used to build different types of electronic circuits. A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that can store energy in an electric field electrostatically.
In simple terms, it works as a small rechargeable battery that stores electricity. However, unlike a battery, it can charge and discharge in the split of a second. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes, but they usually have the same primary components. There are two electrical conductors or plates separated by a dielectric or insulator stacked between them. Plates are composed of conducting material such as thin films of metal or aluminum foil.
A dielectric, on the other hand, is a non-conducting material such as glass, ceramic, plastic film, air, paper, or mica. You can insert the two electrical connections protruding from the plates to fix the capacitor in a circuit. When you apply a voltage over the two plates or connect them to a source, an electric field develops across the insulator, causing one plate to accumulate positive charge while negative charge gets collected on the other.
The capacitor continues to hold its charge even if you disconnect it from the source. The moment you connect it to a load, the stored energy will flow from the capacitor to the load. Capacitance is the amount of energy stored in a capacitor. The higher the capacitance, the more energy it can store. You can increase the capacitance by moving the plates closer to each other or increasing their size.
Alternatively, you can also enhance the insulation qualities to increase the capacitance. Though capacitors look like batteries, they can perform different types of functions in a circuit such as blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass or smooth the output from a power supply. They are also used in electric power transmission systems to stabilize voltage and power flow.
It can supply the microcontroller with the necessary power for a split second to avoid a restart. In other words, it filters out the noise on the power line and stabilizes the power supply.
Unlike a battery, a capacitor releases its charge rapidly. Your camera batteries charge the capacitor attached to the flash gun. When you take a flash photograph, the capacitor releases its charge in a split second to generate a flash of light.
In a resonant or time-dependent circuit, capacitors are used along with a resistor or inductor as a timing element. The time required to charge and discharge a capacitor determines the operation of the circuit. A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical device that resists the flow of current. It is probably the simplest element in an electronic circuit. It is also one of the most common components as resistance is an inherent element of nearly all electronic circuits. They are usually color-coded.
A resistor is not a fancy device at all because resistance is a natural property possessed by almost all conductors. So, a capacitor consists of a copper wire wrapped around an insulating material such as a ceramic rod. The number of turns and the thinness of copper wire are directly proportional to the resistance.
The higher the number of turns and thinner the wire, the higher the resistance. You can also find resistors made of a spiral pattern of a carbon film. Hence, the name carbon film resistors. They are designed for lower-power circuits because carbon film resistors are not as precise as their wire-wound counterparts.
However, they are cheaper than wired resistors. Wire terminals are attached to the both ends. As resistors are blind to the polarity in a circuit, the current can flow through in either direction. So, there is no need to worry about attaching them in a forward or a backward direction. A resistor may not look like much. However, it performs a vital function: controlling the voltage and the current in your circuit. In other words, resistors give you control over the design of your circuit.
When electric current starts flowing through a wire, all the electrons start moving in the same direction. Less amount of water will flow through a thin pipe because there is less room for its movement. Similarly, when the current passes through a thin wire in a resistor, it becomes progressively harder for the electrons to wiggle through it. In short, the number of electrons flowing through a resistor goes down as the length and thinness of the wire increases.
Resistors have plenty of applications, but the three most common ones are managing current flow, dividing voltage, and resistor-capacitor networks. It can overheat other components and possibly damage them. For example, if you connect an LED directly to a battery, it would still work.
However, after some time the LED will heat up like a fireball. It will eventually burn as LEDs are less tolerant to heat. But, if you introduce a resistor in the circuit, it will reduce the flow of current to an optimal level. Thus, you can keep the LED on longer without overheating it.
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How Electronic Components Work
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products , available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements , which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components have a number of electrical terminals or leads. These leads connect to other electrical components, often over wire, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function for example an amplifier , radio receiver , or oscillator.
Learning about basic electronics and creating your own projects is a lot easier than you may think. You will then learn about schematic diagrams and how they are used to design and build circuits. And finally, you will put this information to use by creating your first basic circuit. Before you get started, make sure your electronic workbench is properly set up. The most popular option is to use clear plastic storage boxes for storing parts.
The rule that resistivity of conductors can be separated into two parts viz. Above a certain temperature, the specific heat of a metal becomes constant. This temperature is called. Debye temperature B. Curie temperature C. Neel temperature D.
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