Analysis And Evaluation Of Pumping Test Data Pdf

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Enable javascript in your browser's settings to view menus and other features on this site. A pumping test is a field experiment in which a well is pumped at a controlled rate and water-level response drawdown is measured in one or more surrounding observation wells and optionally in the pumped well control well itself; response data from pumping tests are used to estimate the hydraulic properties of aquifers, evaluate well performance and identify aquifer boundaries. Aquifer test and aquifer performance test APT are alternate designations for a pumping test.

In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding VES.

Aquifer test

Enable javascript in your browser's settings to view menus and other features on this site. A pumping test is a field experiment in which a well is pumped at a controlled rate and water-level response drawdown is measured in one or more surrounding observation wells and optionally in the pumped well control well itself; response data from pumping tests are used to estimate the hydraulic properties of aquifers, evaluate well performance and identify aquifer boundaries.

Aquifer test and aquifer performance test APT are alternate designations for a pumping test. In petroleum engineering, a pumping test is referred to as a drawdown test. Pumping Test or Pump Test? Although the terms pumping test and pump test are often applied interchangeably, the use of pumping test is preferred Woessner and Anderson If you're testing the performance of a pump, use pump test; if you're testing the performance of an aquifer through the action of pumping a well, use pumping test.

The goal of a pumping test, as in any aquifer test , is to estimate hydraulic properties of an aquifer system. For the pumped aquifer, one seeks to determine transmissivity , hydraulic conductivity horizontal and vertical and storativity storage coefficient. In layered systems, one also uses pumping tests to estimate the properties of aquitards vertical hydraulic conductivity and specific storage.

Pumping tests can identify and locate recharge and no-flow boundaries that may limit the lateral extent of aquifers as well. Typically, aquifer properties are estimated from a constant-rate pumping test by fitting mathematical models type curves to drawdown data through a procedure known as curve matching Figure 2.

Diagnostic tools such as derivative analysis are useful for identifying flow regimes and aquifer boundaries from a pumping test prior to performing curve matching. Prior to performing a pumping test in the field, one should spend time in the office developing a thorough plan for the test.

Proper planning includes the design of the test , acquisition and preparation of field equipment , measurement and control of flow rates , measurement locations and schedules with pre- and post-test collection periods for water levels , disposal of pumped water and test duration.

Consider taking the following items into the field with you on your next pumping test assignment:. The foregoing equipment list is provided as a general guide for a typical pumping test and should not be considered exhaustive.

Modify or supplement the list to meet the requirements of your specific test and field conditions. Please send us your suggestions for additions to the list! A controlled pumping stress is imposed on an aquifer system during a pumping test. Therefore, carefully measuring , controlling and recording the flow rate throughout the test is essential for a successful outcome.

Although a constant pumping rate is most often the goal, the rate may vary during a pumping test. Software such as AQTESOLV can account for variable pumping rates ; however, results will depend on how closely the recorded flow rates correspond to actual rate changes.

Measuring the flow rate during a pumping test can be accomplished in a number of ways including the following:. Flow rates should be recorded with sufficient frequency to demonstrate a constant rate or to monitor planned rate changes.

In the event of temporary test interruption e. Bear in mind that the discharge rate often decreases with time as the water level in the control well drops. Kruseman and de Ridder recommend checking and, if necessary, adjusting the flow rate at least once every hour; however, one should consider more frequent measurements until it becomes evident how often rate adjustments are required Stallman Estimating discharge from a pumped well by use of a circular orifice weir USGS Controlling the flow rate is also important for a successful pumping test.

State and local regulations may offer additional guidance regarding an acceptable tolerance for rate variation during a pumping test. During a pumping test, water levels in wells may be measured by means of manual techniques or through the use of sensors with data loggers.

Manual water-level measurement techniques include chalked steel tape , electric water-level sounders and air line methods. The USGS has published procedural documents for measuring water levels with graduated steel tapes and electric tapes:. Steel tapes are not recommended for taking water-level measurements in the pumped well owing to rapid water-level drawdown and the possibility of cascading water in the well.

When taking manual measurements in the pumped well, be sure to secure the measuring device when sounding the well to prevent accidental entanglement with the pump. Pressure transducers combined with data loggers provide rapid and accurate measurements of water levels in wells. Even when working with reliable transducers and data loggers, it's good practice to obtain periodic manual measurements at each observation well to 1 confirm transducer readings and 2 provide backup readings in the event of accidental data loss.

A logarithmic schedule is appropriate for recording water levels a during a constant-rate pumping test. For variable-rate tests e. You can find recommended schedules for manual water-level measurements in Driscoll and Kruseman and de Ridder Pressure transducers are available in vented and nonvented models e.

Vented transducers measure pressure relative to the ambient barometric pressure. Nonvented transducers measure absolute pressure including the pressure of the air column above the sensor. A barometric sensor is required to correct readings from nonvented transducers for changes in barometric air pressure. For any pumping test, an on-site barometric sensor is recommended in the event that water levels require correction for barometric efficiency.

Most modern data loggers have an option for logarithmic sampling; however, you may convert measurements from a linear to a logarithmic schedule with software such as AQTESOLV. Pre- and post-test water-level measurements are essential for the identification of trends e. A linear schedule is recommended for monitoring water levels before and after the test. Pre-test water-level measurements should begin at least several days before pumping begins Figure 5.

In the case of a pumping test that extracts water from an aquifer, care should be exercised in the disposal of the pumped water. First and foremost, be certain that you dispose of the water in accordance with any applicable laws and regulations. Bear in mind the following considerations as you weigh options for the disposal of discharge water:.

The decision to terminate a pumping test is best made on the basis of hydrogeologic conditions at the test site and the objectives of the test. Longer tests may be necessary to estimate specific yield in an unconfined aquifer or to observe boundary effects.

Plotting and inspecting pumping test data as they are collected in the field can help you to decide when it's appropriate to end a pumping test. Other factors may influence the planned duration of a pumping test including budgetary constraints and regulatory requirements.

Often, applicable regulations may establish a minimum duration required for a test, but longer tests may be necessary to achieve other test objectives. Estimation of the vertical hydraulic conductivity, K z , of a nonleaky or leaky confined aquifer requires pumping and observation wells that are partially penetrating. Hantush a showed that the effect of partial penetration becomes negligible at radial distances given by the following equation:.

Use the following calculator to compute the radial distance from the control well at which partial penetration may be ignored. Find additional guidelines and procedures in the collection of guidance documents. Find additional pumping test literature in the list of aquifer testing references. Pumping Tests by Glenn M. Figure 1. Typical well configuration for pumping test in nonleaky confined aquifer.

Figure 2. Estimation of aquifer properties by matching Theis type-curve solution to time-drawdown data collected in an observation well during a constant-rate pumping test in a nonleaky confined aquifer data from Walton Common types of pumping tests that you may perform include the following: Constant-rate tests maintain pumping at the control well at a constant rate.

This is the most commonly used pumping test method for obtaining estimates of aquifer properties. Step-drawdown tests proceed through a sequence of constant-rate steps at the control well to determine well performance characteristics such as well loss and well efficiency.

Recovery tests use water-level residual drawdown measurements after the termination of pumping. Although often interpreted separately, a recovery test is an integral part of any pumping test.

Figure 3. Field Equipment Checklist. Pumping Rate Measurement And Control. Figure 4. Wellhead and discharge setup for a constant-rate pumping test source: USGS Rate Measurement Measuring the flow rate during a pumping test can be accomplished in a number of ways including the following: calibrated container and stopwatch in-line flowmeter orifice weir weir or flume Flow rates should be recorded with sufficient frequency to demonstrate a constant rate or to monitor planned rate changes.

In-line flow meter for discharge measurement source: USGS Figure 6. Rate Control Controlling the flow rate is also important for a successful pumping test. Water-Level Measurement. Measuring Water Levels During a pumping test, water levels in wells may be measured by means of manual techniques or through the use of sensors with data loggers.

Manual Methods Manual water-level measurement techniques include chalked steel tape , electric water-level sounders and air line methods.

Figure 7. Applying carpenter's chalk to steel tape prior to water-level measurement source: Kansas Geological Survey. Figure 8. Electric tape for water-level measurement source: USGS The USGS has published procedural documents for measuring water levels with graduated steel tapes and electric tapes: Measuring water levels by use of a graduated steel tape USGS Measuring water levels by use of an electric tape USGS Steel tapes are not recommended for taking water-level measurements in the pumped well owing to rapid water-level drawdown and the possibility of cascading water in the well.

Data Loggers Pressure transducers combined with data loggers provide rapid and accurate measurements of water levels in wells. Figure 9. Pressure transducer and data logger 1. Measurement Frequency A logarithmic schedule is appropriate for recording water levels a during a constant-rate pumping test.

Pre- And Post-Test Water Levels Pre- and post-test water-level measurements are essential for the identification of trends e. Figure Identification of regional water-level trend from pre- and post-test monitoring Heath Disposal Of Pumped Water. Discharge of pumped water to a river source: USGS

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

The first edition of this book appeared as No. The aims of ILRI are: collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water problems in developing countries. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher. This is the second edition of Analysis and Evaluation ofpumping Test Data. Readers familiar with the first edition and its subsequent impressions will note a number of changes in the new edition. These changes involve the contents of the book, but not the philosophy behind it, which is to be a practical guide to all who are organizing, conducting, and interpreting pumping tests.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

Recently, composite analysis CA , which simultaneously analyzes all drawdown data from multiple observation wells, has been applied to determine the hydraulic parameters of an unconfined aquifer. Moench claimed that the value of specific yield S y determined from non-composite analysis nonCA is sometimes unrealistically low as compared with that obtained by water-balance calculation, and results from CA are better representative of aquifer properties than those from nonCA. The results show that the mean estimates of hydraulic conductivity and S y determined from CA are close to those determined from nonCA.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

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The first edition of this book appeared as No. The aims of ILRI are: collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water problems in developing countries. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data.pdf

The first edition of this book appeared as No. The production of the book was made possible by cooperation between the fol- lowing institutions:. The aims of ILRI are: - To collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water. All rights reserved.

ORG FROM: ETDOSHISHA. EDU МЕНЯЮЩИЙСЯ ОТКРЫТЫЙ ТЕКСТ ДЕЙСТВУЕТ. ВСЯ ХИТРОСТЬ В МЕНЯЮЩЕЙСЯ ПОСЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬНОСТИ.

4 Comments

  1. Lena D. 08.06.2021 at 10:56

    more modern method of analyzing pumping tests in unconfined aquifers with Analyzing and evaluating pumping test data, however, is as much an art as a.

  2. Vic P. 10.06.2021 at 00:07

    An aquifer test or a pumping test is conducted to evaluate an aquifer by "stimulating" the aquifer through constant pumping , and observing the aquifer's "response" drawdown in observation wells.

  3. Connor J. 10.06.2021 at 06:51

    We present, for instance, a more modern method of analyzing pumping tests in unconfined aquifers with delayed yield. We have also re-evaluated some of our.

  4. Daniel S. 15.06.2021 at 06:13

    Abstract: Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well.