Water Pollution Causes Effects And Control Pdf

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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies , usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment.

When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air.

The water they say is life, and indeed they were right. Water is an essential element in both domestic as well as industrial purposes. However, a closer inspection of our water resources today gives us a terrible shock. Water and air, the two essential fluids on which all life depends, have become global garbage cans.

Water pollution

The water they say is life, and indeed they were right. Water is an essential element in both domestic as well as industrial purposes. However, a closer inspection of our water resources today gives us a terrible shock. Water and air, the two essential fluids on which all life depends, have become global garbage cans.

It is the abuse of lakes, ponds, oceans, rivers, reservoirs,. Water is a natural solvent, enabling most pollutants to dissolve in it easily and contaminate it. On a human level, several people die each day due to the consumption of polluted and infected water. As per the Economist report dated , each day, over children die of diarrheal sickness in India, and the numbers have been alarming in the last five years.

Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc. Groundwater is one of our least visible but most critical natural resources. With rainfall, it becomes groundwater as it seeps deep into the earth, filling up cracks, crevices, and porous spaces of an aquifer, which is an underground storehouse of water.

Groundwater gets polluted when contaminants such as fertilizers, pesticides, and waste leaching from landfills and septic systems, making their way into an aquifer. Once polluted, an aquifer becomes unsafe for humans and remains unusable for decades, or even thousands of years.

Besides, groundwater can also spread contamination far from the original polluting source when it seeps into streams, lakes, and oceans. Making groundwater free of contaminants can be difficult to impossible, as well as costly. As per the Environmental Protection Agency of the U. Streams and rivers carry contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals that are carried from farms, factories, and cities into our bays and estuaries, and from there, they reach the ocean.

Though this pollution originates from a specific place, it can affect miles of waterways and ocean. Point sources include wastewater, which is known as effluent, legally or illegally discharged from a manufacturing unit, oil refinery, or wastewater treatment facility. It can be from leaking septic systems, chemical and oil spills, and also illegal dumping.

Nonpoint source pollution is contamination derived from multiple or diffused sources. These may include contaminated water traveled after rains, agricultural or stormwater runoff, or debris blown into waterways from the land. A boundary line cannot contain water pollution on a map.

It can result from a disaster like an oil spill or the slow, downriver creep of industrial, agricultural, or municipal discharge. They contain harmful chemicals, including lead, mercury, sulfur, nitrates, asbestos, and many others.

The sewage water carries pathogens, a typical water pollutant, other harmful bacterias, and chemicals that can cause serious health problems and thereby diseases. Microorganisms in water are known to cause some of the very deadly diseases and become the breeding grounds for creatures that act as carriers.

These carriers inflict these diseases onto an individual via various forms of contact. A typical example would be Malaria. Mining is the process of crushing the rock and extracting coal and other minerals from the underground. These elements, when extracted in the raw form, contain harmful chemicals and can increase the number of toxic elements when mixed up with water, which may result in health problems.

Mining activities emit a large amount of metal waste and sulfides from the rocks, which is harmful to the water. These items take 2 weeks to years to decompose. When such things enter the sea, they not only cause water pollution but also harm animals in the sea. A ship carrying a large quantity of oil may spill oil if met with an accident. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used by farmers to protect crops from insects and bacterias.

However, when these chemicals are mixed up with water, they produce harmful pollutants for plants and animals. A small leakage from the sewer lines can contaminate the underground water and make it unfit for the people to drink. Also, when not repaired on time, the leaking water can come on to the surface and become a breeding ground for insects and mosquitoes. It increases the water temperature and results in the death of aquatic animals and marine species, which later results in water pollution.

The nuclear waste that is produced by radioactive material needs to be disposed of to prevent any nuclear accident. Few major accidents have already taken place in Russia and Japan. As the population has grown exponentially, so has the demand for housing, food, and cloth. Landfills are nothing but a massive pile of garbage that produces the awful smell and can be seen across the city.

The waste produced by animals washed away into the rivers when it rains. It then gets mixed up with other harmful chemicals and causes various water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, and typhoid. Transportation of coal and other petroleum products through underground pipes is well known.

The increased level of nutrients in water bodies is known as Eutrophication. It results in the bloom of algae in the water. It also depletes the amount of oxygen in the water that negatively affects fish and other aquatic animal populations.

Acid rain is essentially water pollution caused by air pollution. When the acidic particles released in the atmosphere by air pollution mix with water vapor, it results in acid rain. Water pollutants include both organic and inorganic factors. Organic factors include volatile organic compounds, fuels, waste from trees, plants, etc. Inorganic factors include ammonia, chemical waste from factories, discarded cosmetics, etc.

The water that travels via fields is usually contaminated with all forms of garbage inclusive of fertilizers that it swept along the way. This infected water makes its way to our water bodies and sometimes to the seas endangering the flora, fauna, and humans that use it along its path.

Industries and factory set-ups are restricted from contaminating the water bodies and are advised to treat their contaminated waste through filtration methods. Water pollution is prevalent and is an area of high alert. Water needs to be preserved and valued today for us to live tomorrow. The treatment of polluted water removes existing contaminants or reduce the concentration of the pollutants to make the water fit for the desired use.

Some of the ways to do it are:. The raw sewage needs to be adequately treated in a water treatment plant before it is released into the environment.

Water is passed through several chambers and chemical processes in the water treatment plant to reduce the amount and toxicity of waste. When nitrates present in the water get converted into gas, it is known as denitrification. It is an ecological approach that prevents leaching of nitrates in the soil.

It stops groundwater from getting contaminated. The ozone wastewater treatment method has become very popular. In this method, an ozone generator breaks down the pollutants in water.

Ozone oxidizes bacteria, organic material, molds, and other contaminants in water. Septic tanks treat sewage right at the place of the location where it originates instead of treating it in any far-away plant or sewage system. This system is usually put to use at the individual building level. The sewage gets separated into solid and liquid components and treated separately.

Tackling Global Water Pollution. What is Water Pollution? Water Pollution: Facts and Figures. Industrial Waste 2. Sewage and Wastewater 3. Mining Activities 4. Marine Dumping 5. Accidental Oil Leakage 6. The burning of fossil fuels 7. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides 8. Leakage From Sewer Lines 9. Global Warming Radioactive Waste Urban Development Leakage From the Landfills Animal Waste Underground Storage Leakage Eutrophication Author Recent Posts.

Founded Conserve Energy Future with the sole motto of providing helpful information related to our rapidly depleting environment. Latest posts by Rinkesh see all. Are Golf Balls Recyclable? And Are They Biodegradable? And Is It Compostable or Biodegradable?

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Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Pollution: Causes, Effects and Control is the fourth edition of a best-selling introductory level book dealing with chemical and radioactive pollution in its broadest sense. The scope of the book ranges from the sources of pollutants and their environmental behaviour, to their effects on human and non-human receptors, to the technologies and strategies available for control. The fourth edition has been wholly revised and updated from the previous edition due to the rapid pace of developments in this field. Topics covered include chemical pollution of freshwater and marine environments, drinking water quality, water pollution biology, sewage and its treatment, toxic wastes, air pollution and atmospheric chemistry, control of pollutant emissions, land contamination, solid waste management, clean technologies, persistent organic pollutants in the environment, environmental radioactivity, health effects of environmental chemicals, legal control of pollution and integrated pollution control. There is a completely new chapter on Clean Technologies and Industrial Ecology, reflecting the growing importance of pollution prevention as opposed to end-of-pipe solutions.

What effects does water pollution have on human health?

Water pollution occurs when a body of water becomes contaminated, usually by chemicals or microorganisms. Water pollution can cause water to become toxic to humans and the environment. Water is an essential resource for all life on Earth. If a water source becomes contaminated due to pollution, it can lead to health issues in humans, such as cancer or cardiovascular conditions.

Water pollution guide website: information on sources of pollution and how they can be treated. Sewage is another name for waste water from domestic and industrial processes.

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Our planet is comprised primarily of water. Aquatic ecosystems cover more than two-thirds of the Earth's surface. And all life on Earth as we know it relies on water to survive. Yet water pollution is a very real threat to our survival.

Water pollution , the release of substances into subsurface groundwater or into lakes , streams, rivers , estuaries , and oceans to the point where the substances interfere with beneficial use of the water or with the natural functioning of ecosystems. In addition to the release of substances, such as chemicals or microorganisms, water pollution may also include the release of energy , in the form of radioactivity or heat , into bodies of water. Water pollution is the release of substances into bodies of water that makes water unsafe for human use and disrupts aquatic ecosystems.


PDF | On Jan 1, , Asha Gupta published WATER POLLUTION-SOURCES,​EFFECTS AND CONTROL | Find, read and cite all the research.


Water Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Solutions

Sewage and other water pollutants

Jump to navigation. British poet W. This widespread problem of water pollution is jeopardizing our health. Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined. Without action, the challenges will only increase by , when global demand for freshwater is expected to be one-third greater than it is now. Sip a glass of cool, clear water as you read this, and you may think water pollution is a problem. But while most Americans have access to safe drinking water , potentially harmful contaminants—from arsenic to copper to lead—have been found in the tap water of every single state in the nation.

Water Pollution: Everything You Need to Know

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1 Comments

  1. Dina E. 13.06.2021 at 15:54

    By Inyinbor Adejumoke A.